Stef Zeemering

Post doc

Dr Stef Zeemering studied Knowledge Engineering at Maastricht University and graduated with a master in Operations Research. After working in the industry as a mathematical consultant, he went on do a PhD at Maastricht University on the topic of sparse optimisation in mathematical systems theory. After a brief return to industry as a scientific software engineer at Maastricht Instruments, he joined the Department of Physiology in 2011. As a post-doc, he investigates how we can measure and quantify the properties of atrial fibrillation (AF). He has particular interests in signal processing, parameter estimation and machine learning techniques applied to the assessment of the complexity of AF, and the prediction of AF progression and outcome, using both measurements obtained directly from the atria, as well as noninvasive measurements such as the electrocardiogram (ECG).

Recently, he started to develop and implement a systems biology approach to the understanding of AF, which is aimed at linking differences in atrial gene expression profiles, as determined by next generation RNA sequencing, to tissue characteristics and patient phenotype. His ambition is to develop a multiscale, patient-specific understanding of AF: starting from the genome and atrial tissue characteristics, all the way up to the electrophysiological properties of the conduction on the atrium and the projection of these conduction patterns on the body surface of a patient, as measured by the ECG.

Department of Physiology
Universiteitssingel 50, 6229 ER Maastricht
PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht
Room number: 3.108
T: +31(0)43 388 13 20


  • 2021
    • Hermans, A. N. L., Pluymaekers, N. A. H. A., Lankveld, T. A. R., van Mourik, M. J. W., Zeemering, S., Dinh, T., den Uijl, D. W., Luermans, J. G. L. M., Vernooy, K., Crijns, H. J. G. M., Schotten, U., & Linz, D. (2021). Clinical utility of rhythm control by electrical cardioversion to assess the association between self-reported symptoms and rhythm status in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation. IJC Heart and Vasculature, 36, [100870].
    • van Hunnik, A., Zeemering, S., Podziemski, P., Kuklik, P., Kuiper, M., Verheule, S., & Schotten, U. (2021). Bi-atrial high-density mapping reveals inhibition of wavefront turning and reduction of complex propagation patterns as main antiarrhythmic mechanisms of vernakalant. EP Europace, 23(7), 1114-1123.
    • Dudink, E. A. M. P., Bidar, E., Jacobs, J., van Hunnik, A., Zeemering, S., Weijs, B., Luermans, J. G. L. M., Maesen, B. A. E., Cheriex, E. C., Maessen, J. G., Hoorntje, J. C. A., Schotten, U., Crijns, H. J. G. M., & Verheule, S. (2021). The relation between the atrial blood supply and the complexity of acute atrial fibrillation. IJC Heart & Vasculature, 34, [100794].
    • Gilbers, M. D., Bidar, E., Maesen, B., Zeemering, S., Isaacs, A., Crijns, H., van Gelder, I., Rienstra, M., Verheule, S., Maessen, J., Stoll, M., & Schotten, U. (2021). Reappraisal of Atrial fibrillation: interaction between hyperCoagulability, Electrical remodelling and Vascular destabilisation in the progression of AF (RACE V) Tissue Bank Project: study design. Netherlands Heart Journal, 29(5), 280-287.
    • Schotten, U., Lee, S., Zeemering, S., & Waldo, A. L. (2021). Paradigm shifts in electrophysiological mechanisms of atrial fibrillation. EP Europace, 23, 9-13.
    • van Rosmalen, F., Maesen, B., van Hunnik, A., Hermans, B. J. M., Bonizzi, P., Bidar, E., Nijs, J., Maessen, J. G., Verheule, S., Delhaas, T., Schotten, U., & Zeemering, S. (2021). Incidence, prevalence, and trajectories of repetitive conduction patterns in human atrial fibrillation. EP Europace, 23(Supplement_1), i123-i132.
    • Gharaviri, A., Pezzuto, S., Potse, M., Conte, G., Zeemering, S., Sobota, V., Verheule, S., Krause, R., Auricchio, A., & Schotten, U. (2021). Synergistic antiarrhythmic effect of inward rectifier current inhibition and pulmonary vein isolation in a 3D computer model for atrial fibrillation. EP Europace, 23, I161-I168.
    • Fabritz, L., Crijns, H. J. G. M., Guasch, E., Goette, A., Häusler, K. G., Kotecha, D., Lewalter, T., Meyer, C., Potpara, T. S., Rienstra, M., Schnabel, R. B., Willems, S., Breithardt, G., Camm, A. J., Chan, A., Chua, W., de Melis, M., Dimopoulou, C., Dobrev, D., ... Kirchhof, P. (2021). Dynamic risk assessment to improve quality of care in patients with atrial fibrillation: the 7th AFNET/EHRA Consensus Conference. EP Europace, 23(3), 329-344.
  • 2020
    • Winters, J., von Braunmuhl, M. E., Zeemering, S., Gilbers, M., Ten Brink, T., Scaf, B., Guasch, E., Mont, L., Batlle, M., Sinner, M., Hatem, S., Mansour, M. K., Fabritz, L., Sommerfeld, L. C., Kirchhof, P., Isaacs, A., Stoll, M., Schotten, U., & Verheule, S. (2020). JavaCyte, a novel open-source tool for automated quantification of key hallmarks of cardiac structural remodeling. Scientific Reports, 10(1), [20074].
    • Zeemering, S., van Hunnik, A., van Rosmalen, F., Bonizzi, P., Scaf, B., Delhaas, T., Verheule, S., & Schotten, U. (2020). A Novel Tool for the Identification and Characterization of Repetitive Patterns in High-Density Contact Mapping of Atrial Fibrillation. Frontiers in physiology, 11, [570118].
    • Zink, M. D., Chua, W., Zeemering, S., di Biase, L., Antoni, B. D., David, C., Hindricks, G., Haeusler, K. G., Al-Khalidi, H. R., Piccini, J. P., Mont, L., Nielsen, J. C., Escobar, L. A., de Bono, J., Van Gelder, I. C., de Potter, T., Scherr, D., Themistoclakis, S., Todd, D., ... Schotten, U. (2020). Predictors of recurrence of atrial fibrillation within the first 3 months after ablation. EP Europace, 22(9), 1337-1344.
    • Bonizzi, P., Meste, O., Zeemering, S., Karel, J., Lankveld, T., Crijns, H., Schotten, U., & Peeters, R. (2020). A novel framework for noninvasive analysis of short-term atrial activity dynamics during persistent atrial fibrillation. Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing, 58(9), 1933-1945.
    • Gharaviri, A., Bidar, E., Potse, M., Zeemering, S., Verheule, S., Pezzuto, S., Krause, R., Maessen, J. G., Auricchio, A., & Schotten, U. (2020). Epicardial Fibrosis Explains Increased Endo-Epicardial Dissociation and Epicardial Breakthroughs in Human Atrial Fibrillation. Frontiers in physiology, 11, [68].
  • 2019
    • Bonizzi, P., Peeters, R., Zeemering, S., van Hunnik, A., Meste, O., & Karel, J. (2019). Detection of Spatio-Temporal Recurrent Patterns in Dynamical Systems. Frontiers in Applied Mathematics and Statistics, 5(36), 1-13.
  • 2018
    • Podziemski, P., Zeemering, S., Kuklik, P., van Hunnik, A., Maesen, B., Maessen, J., Crijns, H. J., Verheule, S., & Schotten, U. (2018). Rotors Detected by Phase Analysis of Filtered, Epicardial Atrial Fibrillation Electrograms Colocalize With Regions of Conduction Block. Circulation-Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology, 11(10), [e005858].
    • Manninger, M., Zweiker, D., van Hunnik, A., Alogna, A., Prassl, A. J., Schipke, J., Zeemering, S., Zirngast, B., Schonleitner, P., Schwarzl, M., Herbst, V., Thon-Gutschi, E., Huber, S., Rohrer, U., Ebner, J., Brussee, H., Pieske, B. M., Heinzel, F. R., Verheule, S., ... Scherr, D. (2018). Arterial hypertension drives arrhythmia progression via specific structural remodeling in a porcine model of atrial fibrillation. Heart Rhythm, 15(9), 1328-1336.
    • van Hunnik, A., Zeemering, S., Podziemski, P., Simons, J., Gatta, G., Hannink, L., Maesen, B., Kuiper, M., Verheule, S., & Schotten, U. (2018). Stationary Atrial Fibrillation Properties in the Goat Do Not Entail Stable or Recurrent Conduction Patterns. Frontiers in physiology, 9, [947].
    • Zeemering, S., Lankveld, T. A. R., Bonizzi, P., Limantoro, I., Bekkers, S. C. A. M., Crijns, H. J. G. M., & Schotten, U. (2018). The electrocardiogram as a predictor of successful pharmacological cardioversion and progression of atrial fibrillation. EP Europace, 20(7), E96-E104.
    • Conte, G., Caputo, M. L., Volders, P. G. A., Luca, A., Mainardi, L., Schotten, U., Corino, V. D. A., Regoli, F., Zeemering, S., Zink, M., Yazdani, S., Kappenberger, L., Moccetti, T., Vesin, J-M., & Auricchio, A. (2018). Concealed abnormal atrial phenotype in patients with Brugada syndrome and no history of atrial fibrillation. International Journal of Cardiology, 253, 66-70.
  • 2017
    • Nguyen, U. C., Maffessanti, F., Mafi-Rad, M., Conte, G., Zeemering, S., Regoli, F., Caputo, M. L., van Stipdonk, A. M. W., Bekkers, S. C. A. M., Suerder, D., Moccetti, T., Krause, R., Prinzen', F. W., Vernooy', K., & Auricchio, A. (2017). Evaluation of the use of unipolar voltage amplitudes for detection of myocardial scar assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in heart failure patients. PLOS ONE, 12(7), [0180637].
    • Kuklik, P., Zeemering, S., van Hunnik, A., Maesen, B., Pison, L., Lau, D. H., Maessen, J., Podziemski, P., Meyer, C., Schaeffer, B., Crijns, H., Willems, S., & Schotten, U. (2017). Identification of Rotors during Human Atrial Fibrillation Using Contact Mapping and Phase Singularity Detection: Technical Considerations. Ieee Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 64(2), 310-318.
    • Spronk, H. M. H., De Jong, A. M., Verheule, S., De Boer, H. C., Maass, A. H., Lau, D. H., Rienstra, M., van Hunnik, A., Kuiper, M., Lumeij, S., Zeemering, S., Linz, D., Kamphuisen, P. W., ten Cate, H., Crijns, H. J., Van Gelder, I. C., van Zonneveld, A. J., & Schotten, U. (2017). Hypercoagulability causes atrial fibrosis and promotes atrial fibrillation. European Heart Journal, 38(1), 38-50.
  • 2016
    • Lankveld, T., de Vos, C. B., Limantoro, I., Zeemering, S., Dudink, E., Crijns, H. J., & Schotten, U. (2016). Systematic analysis of ECG predictors of sinus rhythm maintenance after electrical cardioversion for persistent atrial fibrillation. Heart Rhythm, 13(5), 1020-1027.
    • van Hunnik, A., Lau, D. H., Zeemering, S., Kuiper, M., Verheule, S., & Schotten, U. (2016). Antiarrhythmic effect of vernakalant in electrically remodeled goat atria is caused by slowing of conduction and prolongation of postrepolarization refractoriness. Heart Rhythm, 13(4), 964-972.
    • Lankveld, T., Zeemering, S., Scherr, D., Kuklik, P., Hoffmann, B. A., Willems, S., Pieske, B., Haissaguerre, M., Jais, P., Crijns, H. J., & Schotten, U. (2016). Atrial Fibrillation Complexity Parameters Derived From Surface ECGs Predict Procedural Outcome and Long-Term Follow-Up of Stepwise Catheter Ablation for Atrial Fibrillation. Circulation-Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology, 9(2), [e003354].
    • Potse, M., Lankveld, T. A. R., Zeemering, S., Dagnelie, P. C., Stehouwer, C. D. A., Henry, R. M., Linnenbank, A. C., Kuijpers, N. H. L., & Schotten, U. (2016). P-wave complexity in normal subjects and computer models. Journal of Electrocardiology, 49(4), 545-553.
  • 2015
    • Podziemski, P., Kuklik, P., van Hunnik, A., Zeemering, S., Maesen, B., & Schotten, U. (2015). Far-field effect in unipolar electrograms revisited: High-density mapping of atrial fibrillation in humans. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2015, 5680-3.
    • Lau, D. H., Maesen, B., Zeemering, S., Kuklik, P., van Hunnik, A., Lankveld, T. A. R., Bidar, E., Verheule, S., Nijs, J., Maessen, J., Crijns, H., Sanders, P., & Schotten, U. (2015). Indices of bipolar complex fractionated atrial electrograms correlate poorly with each other and atrial fibrillation substrate complexity. Heart Rhythm, 12(7), 1415-1423.
    • Bonizzi, P., Zeemering, S., Karel, J. M. H., Di Marco, L., Uldry, L., Van Zaen, J., Vesin, J-M., & Schotten, U. (2015). Systematic comparison of non-invasive measures for the assessment of atrial fibrillation complexity: a step forward towards standardization of atrial fibrillation electrogram analysis. EP Europace, 17(2), 318-325.
    • Kuklik, P., Zeemering, S., Maesen, B., Maessen, J., Crijns, H. J., Verheule, S., Ganesan, A. N., & Schotten, U. (2015). Reconstruction of Instantaneous Phase of Unipolar Atrial Contact Electrogram Using a Concept of Sinusoidal Recomposition and Hilbert Transform. Ieee Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 62(1), 296-302.
  • 2014
  • 2013
    • Maesen, B., Zeemering, S., Afonso, C., Eckstein, J., Burton, R. A. B., van Hunnik, A., Stuckey, D. J., Tyler, D., Maessen, J., Grau, V., Verheule, S., Kohl, P., & Schotten, U. (2013). Rearrangement of Atrial Bundle Architecture and Consequent Changes in Anisotropy of Conduction Constitute the 3-Dimensional Substrate for Atrial Fibrillation. Circulation-Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology, 6(5), 967-975.
    • Eckstein, J., Zeemering, S., Linz, D., Maesen, B., Verheule, S., van Hunnik, A., Crijns, H., Allessie, M. A., & Schotten, U. (2013). Transmural Conduction Is the Predominant Mechanism of Breakthrough During Atrial Fibrillation Evidence From Simultaneous Endo-Epicardial High-Density Activation Mapping. Circulation-Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology, 6(2), 334-341.
    • Verheule, S., Tuyls, E., Gharaviri, A., Hulsmans, S., van Hunnik, A., Kuiper, M., Serroyen, J., Zeemering, S., Kuijpers, N. H. L., & Schotten, U. (2013). Loss of Continuity in the Thin Epicardial Layer Because of Endomysial Fibrosis Increases the Complexity of Atrial Fibrillatory Conduction. Circulation-Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology, 6(1), 202-211.
  • 2012
    • Lau, D. H., Maesen, B., Zeemering, S., Verheule, S., Crijns, H. J., & Schotten, U. (2012). Stability of Complex Fractionated Atrial Electrograms: A Systematic Review. Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology, 23(9), 980-987.
  • 2011
    • Eckstein, J., Maesen, B., Linz, D., Zeemering, S., van Hunnik, A., Verheule, S., Allessie, M., & Schotten, U. (2011). Time course and mechanisms of endo-epicardial electrical dissociation during atrial fibrillation in the goat. Cardiovascular Research, 89(4), 816-824.