Uli Schotten


Professor Uli Schotten studied medicine at the universities of Aachen, Glasgow, and Valetta. After four years of training in cardiology at the University Hospital of Aachen, he joined the Department of Physiology at Maastricht University in 1998, first as a scholar of the Academy of Sciences of North-Rhine Westfalia and from 1999 on as a staff member of the department. He defended his thesis 'Mechanisms of Atrial Paralysis in Atrial Fibrillation' at Maastricht University in 2003, and received his habilitation in Experimental Cardiology at the University Hospital in Aachen in 2004. Since 2007, he is Principal Investigator at CARIM. In 2011, he was appointed Professor of Cardiac Electrophysiology and became chairman of the Department of Physiology in 2019.

His research interests include cellular and integrated actions of antiarrhythmic drugs, the development of substrates for the perpetuation of atrial fibrillation, invasive and non-invasive quantification of the substrate of atrial fibrillation, interaction between atrial fibrillation and activation of the coagulation system, and three-dimensional computer models of atrial fibrillation. He is coordinator of the CVON network RACE V and PI in numerous national and international research networks. He was member of the European task force for the development of the ESC guidelines for management of atrial fibrillation in 2010, 2012, and 2016. Furthermore, he is member of the Executive Committee of the Network of Competence for Atrial Fibrillation (AFNET), co-founder of the Maastricht University spin-off company YourRhythmics BV, and acts as the chairman of the Strategic board of CARIM.

Department of Physiology
Universiteitssingel 50, 6229 ER Maastricht
PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht
Room number: 3.130
T: +31(0)43 388 12 00

  • 2022
    • Van Mourik, M. J. W., Arita, V. A., Lyon, A., Lumens, J., De With, R. R., van Melle, J. P., Schotten, U., Bekkers, S. C. A. M., Crijns, H. J. G. M., Van Gelder, I. C., Rienstra, M., & Linz, D. K. (2022). Association between comorbidities and left and right atrial dysfunction in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation: Analysis of AF-RISK. International Journal of Cardiology, 360, 29-35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2022.05.044
    • Maesen, B., Verheule, S., Zeemering, S., La Meir, M., Nijs, J., Lumeij, S., Lau, D. H., Granier, M., Crijns, H. J., Maessen, J. G., Dhein, S., & Schotten, U. (2022). Endomysial fibrosis, rather than overall connective tissue content, is the main determinant of conduction disturbances in human atrial fibrillation. EP Europace, 24(6), 1015-1024. https://doi.org/10.1093/europace/euac026
    • Kawczynski, M. J., Zeemering, S., Gilbers, M., Isaacs, A., Verheule, S., Zink, M. D., Maesen, B., Bramer, S., Van Gelder, I. C., Crijns, H. J. G. M., Schotten, U., & Bidar, E. (2022). New-onset perioperative atrial fibrillation in cardiac surgery patients: transient trouble or persistent problem?-Authors' reply. EP Europace, 24(6), 1037-1037. [317]. https://doi.org/10.1093/europace/euab317
    • Verhaert, D. V. M., Betz, K., Gawałko, M., Hermans, A. N. L., Pluymaekers, N. A. H. A., van der Velden, R. M. J., Philippens, S., Vorstermans, B., Simons, S. O., den Uijl, D. W., Chaldoupi, S-M., Luermans, J. G. L. M., Westra, S. W., Lankveld, T., Kadhim, K., Pepin, J-L., van Steenwijk, R. P., Hol, B., Schotten, U., ... Linz, D. (2022). A VIRTUAL Sleep Apnoea management pathway For the work-up of Atrial fibrillation patients in a digital Remote Infrastructure: VIRTUAL-SAFARI. EP Europace, 24(4), 565-575. https://doi.org/10.1093/europace/euab229
    • Häusler, K. G., Eichner, F. A., Heuschmann, P. U., Fiebach, J. B., Engelhorn, T., Blank, B., Callans, D., Elvan, A., Grimaldi, M., Hansen, J., Hindricks, G., Al-Khalidi, H. R., Mont, L., Nielsen, J. C., Piccini, J. P., Schotten, U., Themistoclakis, S., Vijgen, J., Di Biase, L., & Kirchhof, P. (2022). MRI-Detected Brain Lesions and Cognitive Function in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation Undergoing Left Atrial Catheter Ablation in the Randomized AXAFA-AFNET 5 Trial. Circulation, 145(12), 906-915. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.121.056320
    • Fabritz, L., Connolly, D., Czarnecki, E., Dudek, D., Zlahoda-Huzior, A., Guasch, E., Haase, D., Huebner, T., Jolly, K., Kirchhof, P., Schotten, U., Zapf, A., & Schnabel, R. B. (2022). Remote Design of a Smartphone and Wearable Detected Atrial Arrhythmia in Older Adults Case Finding Study: Smart in OAC - AFNET 9. Frontiers in cardiovascular medicine, 9, [839202]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2022.839202
    • Zink, M. D., Laureanti, R., Hermans, B. J. M., Pison, L., Verheule, S., Philippens, S., Pluymaekers, N., Vroomen, M., Hermans, A., van Hunnik, A., Crijns, H. J. G. M., Vernooy, K., Linz, D., Mainardi, L., Auricchio, A., Zeemering, S., & Schotten, U. (2022). Extended ECG Improves Classification of Paroxysmal and Persistent Atrial Fibrillation Based on P- and f-Waves. Frontiers in physiology, 13, [779826]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2022.779826
    • Herrera-Rivero, M., Gandhi, S., Witten, A., Ghalawinji, A., Schotten, U., & Stoll, M. (2022). Cardiac chamber-specific genetic alterations suggest candidate genes and pathways implicating the left ventricle in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation. Genomics, 114(2), [110320]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ygeno.2022.110320
    • De With, R. R., Artola Arita, V., Nguyen, B-O., Linz, D., Ten Cate, H., Spronk, H., Schotten, U., van Zonneveld, A. J., Erküner, Ö., Bayón, M. A., Schmidt, A. S., Luermans, J. G. L. M., Crijns, H. J. G. M., Van Gelder, I. C., & Rienstra, M. (2022). Different circulating biomarkers in women and men with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation: results from the AF-RISK and RACE V studies. EP Europace, 24(2), 193-201. https://doi.org/10.1093/europace/euab179
    • Artola Arita, V., Santema, B. T., De With, R. R., Nguyen, B-O., Linz, D., Schotten, U., Van Gelder, I. C., Crijns, H. J., Voors, A. A., & Rienstra, M. (2022). Atrial function in paroxysmal AF patients with and without heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: Data from the AF-RISK study. American Heart Journal, 244, 36-41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2021.10.183
    • Krist, D., Linz, D., Schotten, U., Zeemering, S., & Leenen, D. (2022). A Novel Laser Energy Ablation Catheter for Endocardial Cavo-Tricuspid Isthmus Ablation and Epicardial Ventricular Lesion Formation: An in vivo Proof-of-Concept Study. Frontiers in Medical Technology, 4, [834856]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmedt.2022.834856
  • 2021
    • Hermans, B. J. M., Zink, M. D., Rosmalen, F. V., Crijns, H. J. G. M., Vernooy, K., Postema, P., Pison, L., Schotten, U., & Delhaas, T. (2021). Corrected QT interval prolongation after ganglionated plexus ablation: myth or reality?-Authors' reply. EP Europace, 23(12), 2047-2048. https://doi.org/10.1093/europace/euab148
    • Bidar, E., Zeemering, S., Gilbers, M., Isaacs, A., Verheule, S., Zink, M. D., Maesen, B., Bramer, S., Kawczynski, M., Van Gelder, I. C., Crijns, H. J. G. M., Maessen, J. G., & Schotten, U. (2021). Clinical and electrophysiological predictors of device-detected new-onset atrial fibrillation during 3 years after cardiac surgery. EP Europace, 23(12), 1922-1930. https://doi.org/10.1093/europace/euab136
    • Hermans, B. J. M., Zink, M. D., Rosmalen, F. V., Crijns, H. J. G. M., Vernooy, K., Postema, P., Pison, L., Schotten, U., & Delhaas, T. (2021). Does pulmonary vein isolation prolong QT-interval?-Authors' reply. EP Europace, 23(12), 2046-2047. https://doi.org/10.1093/europace/euab153
    • D'Alessandro, E., Scaf, B., van Oerle, R., van Nieuwenhoven, F. A., van Hunnik, A., Verheule, S., Schotten, U., Ten Cate, H., & Spronk, H. M. H. (2021). Thrombin generation by calibrated automated thrombography in goat plasma: Optimization of an assay. Research and practice in thrombosis and haemostasis, 5(8), [e12620]. https://doi.org/10.1002/rth2.12620
    • Verheule, S., & Schotten, U. (2021). Electrophysiological Consequences of Cardiac Fibrosis. Cells, 10(11), [3220]. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10113220
    • D'Alessandro, E., Scaf, B., Munts, C., van Hunnik, A., Trevelyan, C. J., Verheule, S., Spronk, H. M. H., Turner, N. A., ten Cate, H., Schotten, U., & van Nieuwenhoven, F. A. (2021). Coagulation Factor Xa Induces Proinflammatory Responses in Cardiac Fibroblasts via Activation of Protease-Activated Receptor-1. Cells, 10(11), [2958]. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10112958
    • Gatta, G., Sobota, V., Citerni, C., Diness, J. G., Sorensen, U. S., Jespersen, T., Bentzen, B. H., Zeemering, S., Kuiper, M., Verheule, S., Schotten, U., & van Hunnik, A. (2021). Effective termination of atrial fibrillation by SK channel inhibition is associated with a sudden organization of fibrillatory conduction. EP Europace, 23(11), 1847-1859. https://doi.org/10.1093/europace/euab125
    • Gandhi, S., Witten, A., De Majo, F., Gilbers, M., Maessen, J., Schotten, U., de Windt, L. J., & Stoll, M. (2021). Evolutionarily conserved transcriptional landscape of the heart defining the chamber specific physiology. Genomics, 113(6), 3782-3792. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ygeno.2021.09.002
    • Kawczynski, M. J., Gilbers, M., Van de Walle, S., Schalla, S., Crijns, H. J., Maessen, J. G., Schotten, U., Maesen, B., & Bidar, E. (2021). Role of pre-operative transthoracic echocardiography in predicting post-operative atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery: a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis. EP Europace, 23(11), 1731-1743. https://doi.org/10.1093/europace/euab095
    • Lyon, A., van Mourik, M., Cruts, L., Heijman, J., Bekkers, S. C. A. M., Schotten, U., Crijns, H. J. G. M., Linz, D., & Lumens, J. (2021). Understanding the effects of heart beat irregularity on ventricular function in human atrial fibrillation: simulation models may help to untie the knot-Authors' reply. EP Europace, 23(11), 1869-1869. https://doi.org/10.1093/europace/euab144
    • Hermans, A. N. L., Pluymaekers, N. A. H. A., Lankveld, T. A. R., van Mourik, M. J. W., Zeemering, S., Dinh, T., den Uijl, D. W., Luermans, J. G. L. M., Vernooy, K., Crijns, H. J. G. M., Schotten, U., & Linz, D. (2021). Clinical utility of rhythm control by electrical cardioversion to assess the association between self-reported symptoms and rhythm status in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation. IJC Heart and Vasculature, 36, [100870]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcha.2021.100870
    • Gawałko, M., Agbaedeng, T. A., Saljic, A., Müller, D. N., Wilck, N., Schnabel, R., Penders, J., Rienstra, M., van Gelder, I., Jespersen, T., Schotten, U., Crijns, H. J. G. M., Kalman, J. M., Sanders, P., Nattel, S., Dobrev, D., & Linz, D. (2021). Gut microbiota, dysbiosis and atrial fibrillation. Arrhythmogenic mechanisms and potential clinical implications. Cardiovascular Research. https://doi.org/10.1093/cvr/cvab292
    • Linz, D., Verheule, S., Isaacs, A., & Schotten, U. (2021). Considerations for the Assessment of Substrates, Genetics and Risk Factors in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation. Arrhythmia & Electrophysiology Review, 10(3), 132-139. https://doi.org/10.15420/aer.2020.51
    • Birkemeyer, R., Maisch, L., Dahme, T., Spieß, J., Althaus, K., Schneider, S., Ravens, U., Haase, D., & Schotten, U. (2021). Feasibility of digital atrial fibrillation screening in an elderly population: The Ulm heart rhythm weeks. Herzschrittmachertherapie und Elektrophysiologie, 32(3), 346-352. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00399-021-00783-2
    • Saljic, A., Fenner, M. F., Winters, J., Flethoj, M., Eggertsen, C. E., Carstensen, H., Nissen, S. D., Hesselkilde, E. M., van Hunnik, A., Schotten, U., Sorensen, U., Jespersen, T., Verheule, S., & Buhl, R. (2021). Increased fibroblast accumulation in the equine heart following persistent atrial fibrillation. IJC Heart and Vasculature, 35, [100842]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcha.2021.100842
    • van Hunnik, A., Zeemering, S., Podziemski, P., Kuklik, P., Kuiper, M., Verheule, S., & Schotten, U. (2021). Bi-atrial high-density mapping reveals inhibition of wavefront turning and reduction of complex propagation patterns as main antiarrhythmic mechanisms of vernakalant. EP Europace, 23(7), 1114-1123. https://doi.org/10.1093/europace/euab026
    • Schotten, U. (2021). From translation to integration: how to approach the complexity of atrial fibrillation mechanisms. Cardiovascular Research, 117(7), E88-E90. https://doi.org/10.1093/cvr/cvab168
    • Dudink, E. A. M. P., Bidar, E., Jacobs, J., van Hunnik, A., Zeemering, S., Weijs, B., Luermans, J. G. L. M., Maesen, B. A. E., Cheriex, E. C., Maessen, J. G., Hoorntje, J. C. A., Schotten, U., Crijns, H. J. G. M., & Verheule, S. (2021). The relation between the atrial blood supply and the complexity of acute atrial fibrillation. IJC Heart & Vasculature, 34, [100794]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcha.2021.100794
    • Zweiker, D., Manninger, M., Sieghartsleitner, R., Ebner, J., Pratl, B., Bisping, E., Lercher, P., von Lewinski, D., Riedlbauer, R., Rohrer, U., Spronk, H. M. H., Zirlik, A., Schotten, U., & Scherr, D. (2021). No antiarrhythmic effect of direct oral anticoagulants versus vitamin K antagonists in paroxysmal atrial fibrillation patients undergoing catheter ablation. International Journal of Cardiology, 331, 106-108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2021.01.003
    • Gilbers, M. D., Bidar, E., Maesen, B., Zeemering, S., Isaacs, A., Crijns, H., van Gelder, I., Rienstra, M., Verheule, S., Maessen, J., Stoll, M., & Schotten, U. (2021). Reappraisal of Atrial fibrillation: interaction between hyperCoagulability, Electrical remodelling and Vascular destabilisation in the progression of AF (RACE V) Tissue Bank Project: study design. Netherlands Heart Journal, 29(5), 280-287. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12471-021-01538-x
    • Vagos, M. R., Arevalo, H., Heijman, J., Schotten, U., & Sundnes, J. (2021). A Computational Study of the Effects of Tachycardia-Induced Remodeling on Calcium Wave Propagation in Rabbit Atrial Myocytes. Frontiers in physiology, 12, [651428]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.651428
    • Schotten, U., Lee, S., Zeemering, S., & Waldo, A. L. (2021). Paradigm shifts in electrophysiological mechanisms of atrial fibrillation. EP Europace, 23, 9-13. https://doi.org/10.1093/europace/euaa384
    • van Rosmalen, F., Maesen, B., van Hunnik, A., Hermans, B. J. M., Bonizzi, P., Bidar, E., Nijs, J., Maessen, J. G., Verheule, S., Delhaas, T., Schotten, U., & Zeemering, S. (2021). Incidence, prevalence, and trajectories of repetitive conduction patterns in human atrial fibrillation. EP Europace, 23(Supplement_1), i123-i132. https://doi.org/10.1093/europace/euaa403
    • Gharaviri, A., Pezzuto, S., Potse, M., Conte, G., Zeemering, S., Sobota, V., Verheule, S., Krause, R., Auricchio, A., & Schotten, U. (2021). Synergistic antiarrhythmic effect of inward rectifier current inhibition and pulmonary vein isolation in a 3D computer model for atrial fibrillation. EP Europace, 23, I161-I168. https://doi.org/10.1093/europace/euaa413
    • Lubrecht, J. M., Grandits, T., Gharaviri, A., Schotten, U., Pock, T., Plank, G., Krause, R., Auricchio, A., Conte, G., & Pezzuto, S. (2021). Automatic reconstruction of the left atrium activation from sparse intracardiac contact recordings by inverse estimate of fibre structure and anisotropic conduction in a patient-specific model. EP Europace, 23, I63-I70. https://doi.org/10.1093/europace/euaa392
    • Lyon, A., van Mourik, M., Cruts, L., Heijman, J., Bekkers, S. C. A. M., Schotten, U., Crijns, H. J. G. M., Linz, D., & Lumens, J. (2021). Both beat-to-beat changes in RR-interval and left ventricular filling time determine ventricular function during atrial fibrillation. EP Europace, 23, I21-I28. https://doi.org/10.1093/europace/euaa387
    • Fabritz, L., Crijns, H. J. G. M., Guasch, E., Goette, A., Häusler, K. G., Kotecha, D., Lewalter, T., Meyer, C., Potpara, T. S., Rienstra, M., Schnabel, R. B., Willems, S., Breithardt, G., Camm, A. J., Chan, A., Chua, W., de Melis, M., Dimopoulou, C., Dobrev, D., ... Kirchhof, P. (2021). Dynamic risk assessment to improve quality of care in patients with atrial fibrillation: the 7th AFNET/EHRA Consensus Conference. EP Europace, 23(3), 329-344. https://doi.org/10.1093/europace/euaa279
    • Hermans, B. J. M., Zink, M. D., van Rosmalen, F., Crijns, H. J. G. M., Vernooy, K., Postema, P., Pison, L., Schotten, U., & Delhaas, T. (2021). Pulmonary vein isolation in a real-world population does not influence QTc interval. EP Europace, 23, I48-I54. https://doi.org/10.1093/europace/euaa390
    • Linz, B., Hohl, M., Lang, L., Wong, D. W. L., Nickel, A. G., De La Torre, C., Sticht, C., Wirth, K., Boor, P., Maack, C., Speer, T., Jespersen, T., Schotten, U., Sanders, P., Bohm, M., & Linz, D. (2021). Repeated exposure to transient obstructive sleep apnea-related conditions causes an atrial fibrillation substrate in a chronic rat model. Heart Rhythm, 18(3), 455-464. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrthm.2020.10.011
    • Fenner, M. F., Gatta, G., Sattler, S., Kuiper, M., Hesselkilde, E. M., Adler, D. M. T., Smerup, M., Schotten, U., Sorensen, U., Diness, J. G., Jespersen, T., Verheule, S., Van Hunnik, A., & Buhl, R. (2021). Inhibition of Small-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Current (IK,Ca) Leads to Differential Atrial Electrophysiological Effects in a Horse Model of Persistent Atrial Fibrillation. Frontiers in physiology, 12, [614483]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.614483
    • Simons, S. O., Elliott, A., Sastry, M., Hendriks, J. M., Arzt, M., Rienstra, M., Kalman, J. M., Heidbuchel, H., Nattel, S., Wesseling, G., Schotten, U., van Gelder, I. C., Franssen, F. M. E., Sanders, P., Crijns, H. J. G. M., & Linz, D. (2021). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and atrial fibrillation an interdisciplinary perspective. European Heart Journal, 42(5), 532-540. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa822
    • Sobota, V., Gatta, G., van Hunnik, A., van Tuijn, I., Kuiper, M., Milnes, J., Jespersen, T., Schotten, U., & Verheule, S. (2021). The Acetylcholine-Activated Potassium Current Inhibitor XAF-1407 Terminates Persistent Atrial Fibrillation in Goats. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 11, [608410]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.608410
    • Auricchio, A., Ozkartal, T., Salghetti, F., Neumann, L., Pezzuto, S., Gharaviri, A., Demarchi, A., Caputo, M. L., Regoli, F., De Asmundis, C., Chierchia, G. B., Brugada, P., Klersy, C., Moccetti, T., Schotten, U., & Conte, G. (2021). Short P-Wave Duration is a Marker of Higher Rate of Atrial Fibrillation Recurrences after Pulmonary Vein Isolation: New Insights into the Pathophysiological Mechanisms Through Computer Simulations. Journal of the American Heart Association, 10(2), [018572]. https://doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.018572
    • Heijman, J., Linz, D., & Schotten, U. (2021). Dynamics of Atrial Fibrillation Mechanisms and Comorbidities. Annual Review of Physiology, 83, 83-106. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-physiol-031720-085307
    • Gharaviri, A., Pezzuto, S., Potse, M., Verheule, S., Conte, G., Krause, R., Schotten, U., & Auricchio, A. (2021). Left Atrial Appendage Electrical Isolation Reduces Atrial Fibrillation Recurrences A Simulation Study. Circulation-Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology, 14(1), [e009230]. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCEP.120.009230