Uli Schotten


Professor Uli Schotten studied medicine at the universities of Aachen, Glasgow, and Valetta. After four years of training in cardiology at the University Hospital of Aachen, he joined the Department of Physiology at Maastricht University in 1998, first as a scholar of the Academy of Sciences of North-Rhine Westfalia and from 1999 on as a staff member of the department. He defended his thesis 'Mechanisms of Atrial Paralysis in Atrial Fibrillation' at Maastricht University in 2003, and received his habilitation in Experimental Cardiology at the University Hospital in Aachen in 2004. Since 2007, he is Principal Investigator at CARIM. In 2011, he was appointed Professor of Cardiac Electrophysiology and became chairman of the Department of Physiology in 2019.

His research interests include cellular and integrated actions of antiarrhythmic drugs, the development of substrates for the perpetuation of atrial fibrillation, invasive and non-invasive quantification of the substrate of atrial fibrillation, interaction between atrial fibrillation and activation of the coagulation system, and three-dimensional computer models of atrial fibrillation. He is coordinator of the CVON network RACE V and PI in numerous national and international research networks. He was member of the European task force for the development of the ESC guidelines for management of atrial fibrillation in 2010, 2012, and 2016. Furthermore, he is member of the Executive Committee of the Network of Competence for Atrial Fibrillation (AFNET), co-founder of the Maastricht University spin-off company YourRhythmics BV, and acts as the chairman of the Strategic board of CARIM.

Department of Physiology
Universiteitssingel 50, 6229 ER Maastricht
PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht
Room number: 3.130
T: +31(0)43 388 12 00

  • 2021
    • Gandhi, S., Witten, A., De Majo, F., Gilbers, M., Maessen, J., Schotten, U., de Windt, L. J., & Stoll, M. (2021). Evolutionarily conserved transcriptional landscape of the heart defining the chamber specific physiology. Genomics, 113(6), 3782-3792. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ygeno.2021.09.002
    • Hermans, A. N. L., Pluymaekers, N. A. H. A., Lankveld, T. A. R., van Mourik, M. J. W., Zeemering, S., Dinh, T., den Uijl, D. W., Luermans, J. G. L. M., Vernooy, K., Crijns, H. J. G. M., Schotten, U., & Linz, D. (2021). Clinical utility of rhythm control by electrical cardioversion to assess the association between self-reported symptoms and rhythm status in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation. IJC Heart and Vasculature, 36, [100870]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcha.2021.100870
    • Saljic, A., Fenner, M. F., Winters, J., Flethoj, M., Eggertsen, C. E., Carstensen, H., Nissen, S. D., Hesselkilde, E. M., van Hunnik, A., Schotten, U., Sorensen, U., Jespersen, T., Verheule, S., & Buhl, R. (2021). Increased fibroblast accumulation in the equine heart following persistent atrial fibrillation. IJC Heart and Vasculature, 35, [100842]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcha.2021.100842
    • van Hunnik, A., Zeemering, S., Podziemski, P., Kuklik, P., Kuiper, M., Verheule, S., & Schotten, U. (2021). Bi-atrial high-density mapping reveals inhibition of wavefront turning and reduction of complex propagation patterns as main antiarrhythmic mechanisms of vernakalant. EP Europace, 23(7), 1114-1123. https://doi.org/10.1093/europace/euab026
    • Schotten, U. (2021). From translation to integration: how to approach the complexity of atrial fibrillation mechanisms. Cardiovascular Research, 117(7), E88-E90. https://doi.org/10.1093/cvr/cvab168
    • Dudink, E. A. M. P., Bidar, E., Jacobs, J., van Hunnik, A., Zeemering, S., Weijs, B., Luermans, J. G. L. M., Maesen, B. A. E., Cheriex, E. C., Maessen, J. G., Hoorntje, J. C. A., Schotten, U., Crijns, H. J. G. M., & Verheule, S. (2021). The relation between the atrial blood supply and the complexity of acute atrial fibrillation. IJC Heart & Vasculature, 34, [100794]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcha.2021.100794
    • Zweiker, D., Manninger, M., Sieghartsleitner, R., Ebner, J., Pratl, B., Bisping, E., Lercher, P., von Lewinski, D., Riedlbauer, R., Rohrer, U., Spronk, H. M. H., Zirlik, A., Schotten, U., & Scherr, D. (2021). No antiarrhythmic effect of direct oral anticoagulants versus vitamin K antagonists in paroxysmal atrial fibrillation patients undergoing catheter ablation. International Journal of Cardiology, 331, 106-108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2021.01.003
    • Gilbers, M. D., Bidar, E., Maesen, B., Zeemering, S., Isaacs, A., Crijns, H., van Gelder, I., Rienstra, M., Verheule, S., Maessen, J., Stoll, M., & Schotten, U. (2021). Reappraisal of Atrial fibrillation: interaction between hyperCoagulability, Electrical remodelling and Vascular destabilisation in the progression of AF (RACE V) Tissue Bank Project: study design. Netherlands Heart Journal, 29(5), 280-287. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12471-021-01538-x
    • Vagos, M. R., Arevalo, H., Heijman, J., Schotten, U., & Sundnes, J. (2021). A Computational Study of the Effects of Tachycardia-Induced Remodeling on Calcium Wave Propagation in Rabbit Atrial Myocytes. Frontiers in physiology, 12, [651428]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.651428
    • Schotten, U., Lee, S., Zeemering, S., & Waldo, A. L. (2021). Paradigm shifts in electrophysiological mechanisms of atrial fibrillation. EP Europace, 23, 9-13. https://doi.org/10.1093/europace/euaa384
    • van Rosmalen, F., Maesen, B., van Hunnik, A., Hermans, B. J. M., Bonizzi, P., Bidar, E., Nijs, J., Maessen, J. G., Verheule, S., Delhaas, T., Schotten, U., & Zeemering, S. (2021). Incidence, prevalence, and trajectories of repetitive conduction patterns in human atrial fibrillation. EP Europace, 23(Supplement_1), i123-i132. https://doi.org/10.1093/europace/euaa403
    • Gharaviri, A., Pezzuto, S., Potse, M., Conte, G., Zeemering, S., Sobota, V., Verheule, S., Krause, R., Auricchio, A., & Schotten, U. (2021). Synergistic antiarrhythmic effect of inward rectifier current inhibition and pulmonary vein isolation in a 3D computer model for atrial fibrillation. EP Europace, 23, I161-I168. https://doi.org/10.1093/europace/euaa413
    • Lubrecht, J. M., Grandits, T., Gharaviri, A., Schotten, U., Pock, T., Plank, G., Krause, R., Auricchio, A., Conte, G., & Pezzuto, S. (2021). Automatic reconstruction of the left atrium activation from sparse intracardiac contact recordings by inverse estimate of fibre structure and anisotropic conduction in a patient-specific model. EP Europace, 23, I63-I70. https://doi.org/10.1093/europace/euaa392
    • Lyon, A., van Mourik, M., Cruts, L., Heijman, J., Bekkers, S. C. A. M., Schotten, U., Crijns, H. J. G. M., Linz, D., & Lumens, J. (2021). Both beat-to-beat changes in RR-interval and left ventricular filling time determine ventricular function during atrial fibrillation. EP Europace, 23, I21-I28. https://doi.org/10.1093/europace/euaa387
    • Fabritz, L., Crijns, H. J. G. M., Guasch, E., Goette, A., Häusler, K. G., Kotecha, D., Lewalter, T., Meyer, C., Potpara, T. S., Rienstra, M., Schnabel, R. B., Willems, S., Breithardt, G., Camm, A. J., Chan, A., Chua, W., de Melis, M., Dimopoulou, C., Dobrev, D., ... Kirchhof, P. (2021). Dynamic risk assessment to improve quality of care in patients with atrial fibrillation: the 7th AFNET/EHRA Consensus Conference. EP Europace, 23(3), 329-344. https://doi.org/10.1093/europace/euaa279
    • Hermans, B. J. M., Zink, M. D., van Rosmalen, F., Crijns, H. J. G. M., Vernooy, K., Postema, P., Pison, L., Schotten, U., & Delhaas, T. (2021). Pulmonary vein isolation in a real-world population does not influence QTc interval. EP Europace, 23, I48-I54. https://doi.org/10.1093/europace/euaa390
    • Linz, B., Hohl, M., Lang, L., Wong, D. W. L., Nickel, A. G., De La Torre, C., Sticht, C., Wirth, K., Boor, P., Maack, C., Speer, T., Jespersen, T., Schotten, U., Sanders, P., Bohm, M., & Linz, D. (2021). Repeated exposure to transient obstructive sleep apnea-related conditions causes an atrial fibrillation substrate in a chronic rat model. Heart Rhythm, 18(3), 455-464. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrthm.2020.10.011
    • Fenner, M. F., Gatta, G., Sattler, S., Kuiper, M., Hesselkilde, E. M., Adler, D. M. T., Smerup, M., Schotten, U., Sorensen, U., Diness, J. G., Jespersen, T., Verheule, S., Van Hunnik, A., & Buhl, R. (2021). Inhibition of Small-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Current (IK,Ca) Leads to Differential Atrial Electrophysiological Effects in a Horse Model of Persistent Atrial Fibrillation. Frontiers in physiology, 12, [614483]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.614483
    • Simons, S. O., Elliott, A., Sastry, M., Hendriks, J. M., Arzt, M., Rienstra, M., Kalman, J. M., Heidbuchel, H., Nattel, S., Wesseling, G., Schotten, U., van Gelder, I. C., Franssen, F. M. E., Sanders, P., Crijns, H. J. G. M., & Linz, D. (2021). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and atrial fibrillation an interdisciplinary perspective. European Heart Journal, 42(5), 532-540. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa822
    • Sobota, V., Gatta, G., van Hunnik, A., van Tuijn, I., Kuiper, M., Milnes, J., Jespersen, T., Schotten, U., & Verheule, S. (2021). The Acetylcholine-Activated Potassium Current Inhibitor XAF-1407 Terminates Persistent Atrial Fibrillation in Goats. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 11, [608410]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.608410
    • Auricchio, A., Ozkartal, T., Salghetti, F., Neumann, L., Pezzuto, S., Gharaviri, A., Demarchi, A., Caputo, M. L., Regoli, F., De Asmundis, C., Chierchia, G. B., Brugada, P., Klersy, C., Moccetti, T., Schotten, U., & Conte, G. (2021). Short P-Wave Duration is a Marker of Higher Rate of Atrial Fibrillation Recurrences after Pulmonary Vein Isolation: New Insights into the Pathophysiological Mechanisms Through Computer Simulations. Journal of the American Heart Association, 10(2), [018572]. https://doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.018572
    • Heijman, J., Linz, D., & Schotten, U. (2021). Dynamics of Atrial Fibrillation Mechanisms and Comorbidities. Annual Review of Physiology, 83, 83-106. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-physiol-031720-085307
    • Gharaviri, A., Pezzuto, S., Potse, M., Verheule, S., Conte, G., Krause, R., Schotten, U., & Auricchio, A. (2021). Left Atrial Appendage Electrical Isolation Reduces Atrial Fibrillation Recurrences A Simulation Study. Circulation-Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology, 14(1), [e009230]. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCEP.120.009230
  • 2020
    • Piccini, J. P., Todd, D. M., Massaro, T., Lougee, A., Haeusler, K. G., Blank, B., de Bono, J. P., Callans, D. J., Elvan, A., Fetsch, T., Van Gelder, I., Gentlesk, P., Grimaldi, M., Hansen, J., Hindricks, G., Al-Khalidi, H., Mont, L., Nielsen, J. C., Noelker, G., ... Kirchhof, P. (2020). Changes in quality of life, cognition and functional status following catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation. Heart, 106(24), 1919-1926. https://doi.org/10.1136/heartjnl-2020-316612
    • Winters, J., von Braunmuhl, M. E., Zeemering, S., Gilbers, M., Ten Brink, T., Scaf, B., Guasch, E., Mont, L., Batlle, M., Sinner, M., Hatem, S., Mansour, M. K., Fabritz, L., Sommerfeld, L. C., Kirchhof, P., Isaacs, A., Stoll, M., Schotten, U., & Verheule, S. (2020). JavaCyte, a novel open-source tool for automated quantification of key hallmarks of cardiac structural remodeling. Scientific Reports, 10(1), [20074]. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-76932-3
    • Sutanto, H., Lyon, A., Lumens, J., Schotten, U., Dobrev, D., & Heijman, J. (2020). Cardiomyocyte calcium handling in health and disease: Insights from in vitro and in silico studies. Progress in Biophysics & Molecular Biology, 157, 54-75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pbiomolbio.2020.02.008
    • Zeemering, S., van Hunnik, A., van Rosmalen, F., Bonizzi, P., Scaf, B., Delhaas, T., Verheule, S., & Schotten, U. (2020). A Novel Tool for the Identification and Characterization of Repetitive Patterns in High-Density Contact Mapping of Atrial Fibrillation. Frontiers in physiology, 11, [570118]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2020.570118
    • Vagos, M. R., Arevalo, H., Heijman, J., Schotten, U., & Sundnes, J. (2020). A Novel Computational Model of the Rabbit Atrial Cardiomyocyte With Spatial Calcium Dynamics. Frontiers in physiology, 11, [556156]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2020.556156
    • Kirchhof, P., Camm, A. J., Goette, A., Brandes, A., Eckardt, L., Elvan, A., Fetsch, T., van Gelder, I. C., Haase, D., Haegeli, L. M., Hamann, F., Heidbuchel, H., Hindricks, G., Kautzner, J., Kuck, K. H., Mont, L., Ng, G. A., Rekosz, J., Schoen, N., ... EAST-AFNET 4 Trial Investigators (2020). Early Rhythm-Control Therapy in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation. New England Journal of Medicine, 383(14), 1305-1316. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2019422
    • Zink, M. D., Chua, W., Zeemering, S., di Biase, L., Antoni, B. D., David, C., Hindricks, G., Haeusler, K. G., Al-Khalidi, H. R., Piccini, J. P., Mont, L., Nielsen, J. C., Escobar, L. A., de Bono, J., Van Gelder, I. C., de Potter, T., Scherr, D., Themistoclakis, S., Todd, D., ... Schotten, U. (2020). Predictors of recurrence of atrial fibrillation within the first 3 months after ablation. EP Europace, 22(9), 1337-1344. https://doi.org/10.1093/europace/euaa132
    • Bonizzi, P., Meste, O., Zeemering, S., Karel, J., Lankveld, T., Crijns, H., Schotten, U., & Peeters, R. (2020). A novel framework for noninvasive analysis of short-term atrial activity dynamics during persistent atrial fibrillation. Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing, 58(9), 1933-1945. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11517-020-02190-0
    • Fenner, M. F., Carstensen, H., Nissen, S. D., Hesselkilde, E. M., Lunddahl, C. S., Jensen, M. A. H., Loft-Andersen, A. V., Sather, S. M., Platonov, P., El-Haou, S., Jackson, C., Tang, R., Kirby, R., Ford, J., Schotten, U., Milnes, J., Sorensen, U. S., Jespersen, T., & Buhl, R. (2020). Effect of selective I K,ACh inhibition by XAF‐1407 in an equine model of tachypacing‐induced persistent atrial fibrillation. British Journal of Pharmacology, 177(16), 3778-3794. https://doi.org/10.1111/bph.15100
    • De With, R. R., Erkuner, O., Rienstra, M., Nguyen, B-O., Korver, F. W. J., Linz, D., Ten, H. C., Spronk, H., Kroon, A. A., Maass, A. H., Blaauw, Y., Tieleman, R. G., Hemels, M. E. W., de Groot, J. R., Elvan, A., de Melis, M., Scheerder, C. O. S., Al-Jazairi, M. I. H., Schotten, U., ... RACE V Investigators (2020). Temporal patterns and short-term progression of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation data from RACE V. EP Europace, 22(8), 1162-1172. https://doi.org/10.1093/europace/euaa123
    • Manninger, M., Zweiker, D., Dobrovnik, M., van Hunnik, A., Rohrer, U., Zirngast, B., Herbst, V., Maechler, H., Schotten, U., Zirlik, A., & Scherr, D. (2020). Acute hyperglycaemia is not associated with the development of atrial fibrillation in healthy pigs. Scientific Reports, 10(1), [11881]. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-68897-0
    • Kloosterman, M., Chua, W., Fabritz, L., Al-Khalidi, H. R., Schotten, U., Nielsen, J. C., Piccini, J. P., Di Biase, L., Hausler, K. G., Todd, D., Mont, L., Van Gelder, I. C., Kirchhof, P., AXAFA-AFNET, ., & AXAFA-AFNET 5 Investigators (2020). Sex differences in catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation: results from AXAFA-AFNET 5. EP Europace, 22(7), 1026-1035. https://doi.org/10.1093/europace/euaa015
    • Linz, B., Hohl, M., Mishima, R., Saljic, A., Lau, D. H., Jespersen, T., Schotten, U., Sanders, P., & Linz, D. (2020). Pharmacological inhibition of sodium-proton-exchanger subtype 3-mediated sodium absorption in the gut reduces atrial fibrillation susceptibility in obese spontaneously hypertensive rats. IJC Heart & Vasculature, 28, [100534]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcha.2020.100534
    • Gharaviri, A., Bidar, E., Potse, M., Zeemering, S., Verheule, S., Pezzuto, S., Krause, R., Maessen, J. G., Auricchio, A., & Schotten, U. (2020). Epicardial Fibrosis Explains Increased Endo-Epicardial Dissociation and Epicardial Breakthroughs in Human Atrial Fibrillation. Frontiers in physiology, 11, [68]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2020.00068
  • 2019
    • Linz, D., Baumert, M., Desteghe, L., Kadhim, K., Vernooy, K., Kalman, J. M., Dobrev, D., Arzt, M., Sastry, M., Crijns, H. J. G. M., Schotten, U., Cowie, M. R., McEvoy, R. D., Heidbuchel, H., Hendriks, J., Sanders, P., & Lau, D. H. (2019). Nightly sleep apnea severity in patients with atrial fibrillation: Potential applications of long-term sleep apnea monitoring. IJC Heart and Vasculature, 24, 1-7. [100424]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcha.2019.100424
    • Linz, D., Elliott, A. D., Hohl, M., Malik, V., Schotten, U., Dobrev, D., Nattel, S., Boehm, M., Floras, J., Lau, D. H., & Sanders, P. (2019). Role of autonomic nervous system in atrial fibrillation. International Journal of Cardiology, 287, 181-188. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2018.11.091
    • Hohl, M., Erb, K., Lang, L., Ruf, S., Hübschle, T., Dhein, S., Linz, W., Elliott, A. D., Sanders, P., Zamyatkin, O., Böhm, M., Schotten, U., Sadowski, T., & Linz, D. (2019). Cathepsin A Mediates Ventricular Remote Remodeling and Atrial Cardiomyopathy in Rats With Ventricular Ischemia/Reperfusion. JACC: Basic to Translational Science, 4(3), 332-344. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacbts.2019.01.008
    • Chua, W., Easter, C. L., Guasch, E., Sitch, A., Casadei, B., Crijns, H. J. G. M., Haase, D., Hatem, S., Kaab, S., Mont, L., Schotten, U., Sinner, M. F., Hemming, K., Deeks, J. J., Kirchhof, P., & Fabritz, L. (2019). Development and external validation of predictive models for prevalent and recurrent atrial fibrillation: a protocol for the analysis of the CATCH ME combined dataset. BMC Cardiovascular disorders, 19, [120]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12872-019-1105-4
    • Conte, G., Schotten, U., & Auricchio, A. (2019). The Atrial Phenotype of the Inherited Primary Arrhythmia Syndromes. Arrhythmia & Electrophysiology Review, 8(1), 42-46. https://doi.org/10.15420/aer.2019.4.2
    • Dudink, E., Florijn, B., Weijs, B., Duijs, J., Luermans, J., Peeters, F., Schurgers, L., Wildberger, J., Schotten, U., Bijkerk, R., Crijns, H. J., & van Zonneveld, A. J. (2019). Vascular Calcification and not Arrhythmia in Idiopathic Atrial Fibrillation Associates with Sex Differences in Diabetic Microvascular Injury miRNA Profiles. MicroRNA (Shāriqah, United Arab Emirates), 8(2), 127-134. https://doi.org/10.2174/2211536608666181122125208
  • 2018
    • Gharaviri, A., Verheule, S., Eckstein, J., Potse, M., Krause, R., Auricchio, A., Kuijpers, N. H. L., & Schotten, U. (2018). Effect of Na+-channel blockade on the three-dimensional substrate of atrial fibrillation in a model of endo-epicardial dissociation and transmural conduction. EP Europace, 20(Suppl. 3), iii69-iii76. https://doi.org/10.1093/europace/euy236
    • Pezzuto, S., Gharaviri, A., Schotten, U., Potse, M., Conte, G., Caputo, M. L., Regoli, F., Krause, R., & Auricchio, A. (2018). Beat-to-beat P-wave morphological variability in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation: an in silico study. EP Europace, 20, 26-35. https://doi.org/10.1093/europace/euy227