Leon Schurgers


Initially trained in clinical chemistry and hematology at the University of Applied Science, Prof. Leon Schurgers obtained his PhD at the Department of Biochemistry within CARIM on the role of vitamin K1 and K2 on bone metabolism and cardiovascular disease. He worked as post-doc on a Dutch Heart Foundation grant on the role of matrix Gla-protein synthesized by vascular smooth muscle cell and calcification in collaboration with the group of Prof. Catherine Shanahan (Cambridge, UK).

In 2009, he was appointed on a tenured position at the Department of Biochemistry. After entering the Toptalent programme (Maastricht UMC+) in 2016, he was appointed as Professor of Biochemistry of Vascular Calcification in 2017. He is vice-chair of the department of Biochemistry. Since 2021, he chairs the stem cell research facility of the University of Maastricht (SCRUM).

The focus of his current work is elucidating the molecular mechanisms by which vascular remodelling is initiated and propagated. Key cellular events include phenotypic switching of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and the role of oxidative stress, extracellular vesicles and calcification. In this, he collaborates closely with the Cardiothoracic Surgery and Vascular Surgery departments of the Heart and Vessel Center (HVC) of the Maastricht University Medical Center. Patient derived primary SMCs are isolated from vascular tissue and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) are generated from patient derived peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). These iPSCs are used to differentiate into patient specific cardiovascular cells (i.e., cardiomyocytes, smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells and fibroblasts) to study cardiovascular disease.

The underlying causes of SMC phenotypic switching are insufficient to understand the pathogenesis of vascular ageing and calcification at a level that allows development of novel diagnostic tools and therapeutic strategies. In his project line, the Schurgers’ group aim to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of vitamin K-metabolism in health and vascular disease. Importantly, this work will help to understand the paradoxal observation that patients with low vitamin K-status during oral anticoagulant treatment develop enhanced vascular calcification and our results might provide new insights in prognostic and preventive measures to combat vascular ageing.

Professor Schurgers is Chairman of the steering scientific board on the world-wide quality assurance scheme for vitamin K detection and member of the scientific advisory boards of the Dutch Thrombosis Society.

Department of Biochemistry
Universiteitssingel 50, 6229 ER Maastricht
PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht
Room number: 4.314
T: +31(0)43 388 16 80

  • 2023
    • Haroon, S., Davenport, A., Ling, L. H., Tai, B. C., Teo, L. L. S., Schurgers, L., Chen, Z., Shroff, R., Fischer, D. C., Khatri, P., Low, S., Tan, J. N., Chua, H. R., Teo, B. W., Ong, C. C., Subramanian, S., Yeo, X. E., Wong, W. K., & Lau, T. W. L. (2023). Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial of the Effect of Treatment with Vitamin K2 on Vascular Calcification in Hemodialysis Patients (Trevasc-HDK). Kidney International Reports, 8(9), 1741-1751. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ekir.2023.06.011
    • Ganizada, B. H., Reesink, K. D., Parikh, S., Ramaekers, M. J. F. G., Akbulut, A. C., Saraber, P. J. M. H., Debeij, G. P., Jaminon, A. M., Natour, E., Lorusso, R., Wildberger, J. E., Mees, B., Schurink, G. W., Jacobs, M. J., Cleutjens, J., Krapels, I., Gombert, A., Maessen, J. G., Accord, R., ... MUMC TAA Student Team (2023). The Maastricht Acquisition Platform for Studying Mechanisms of Cell-Matrix Crosstalk (MAPEX): An Interdisciplinary and Systems Approach towards Understanding Thoracic Aortic Disease. Biomedicines, 11(8), Article 2095. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11082095
    • Wang, R., Damanik, F., Kuhnt, T., Jaminon, A., Hafeez, S., Liu, H., Ippel, H., Dijkstra, P. J., Bouvy, N., Schurgers, L., ten Cate, A. T., Dias, A., Moroni, L., & Baker, M. B. (2023). Biodegradable Poly(ester) Urethane Acrylate Resins for Digital Light Processing: From Polymer Synthesis to 3D Printed Tissue Engineering Constructs. Advanced Healthcare Materials, 12(17). https://doi.org/10.1002/adhm.202202648
    • van Kuijk, K., McCracken, I. R., Tillie, R. J. H. A., Asselberghs, S. E. J., Kheder, D. A., Muitjens, S., Jin, H., Taylor, R. S., Schreur, R. W., Kuppe, C., Dobie, R., Ramachandran, P., Gijbels, M. J., Temmerman, L., Kirkwoord, P. M., Luyten, J., Li, Y. M., Noels, H., Goossens, P., ... Sluimer, J. C. (2023). Human and murine fibroblast single-cell transcriptomics reveals fibroblast clusters are differentially affected by ageing and serum cholesterol. Cardiovascular Research, 119(7), 1509-1523. https://doi.org/10.1093/cvr/cvad016
    • Panagiotou, N., McGuinness, D., Jaminon, A. M. G., Mees, B., Selman, C., Schurgers, L., & Shiels, P. G. (2023). Microvesicle-Mediated Tissue Regeneration Mitigates the Effects of Cellular Ageing. Cells, 12(13), Article 1707. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells12131707
    • Pinto, E., Viegas, C., Martins, P. V., Nascimento, T., Schurgers, L., & Simes, D. (2023). New Food Frequency Questionnaire to Estimate Vitamin K Intake in a Mediterranean Population. Nutrients, 15(13), Article 3012. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15133012
    • Skenteris, N. T., Hemme, E., Delfos, L., Karadimou, G., Karlof, E., Lengquist, M., Kronqvist, M., Zhang, X., Maegdefessel, L., Schurgers, L. J., Arnardottir, H., Biessen, E. A. L., Bot, I., & Matic, L. (2023). Mast cells participate in smooth muscle cell reprogramming and atherosclerotic plaque calcification. Vascular Pharmacology, 150, Article 107167. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vph.2023.107167
    • Dai, L., Mafra, D., Shiels, P. G., Hackeng, T. M., Stenvinkel, P., & Schurgers, L. J. (2023). Vitamin K and Hallmarks of Ageing: Focus on Diet and Gut Microbiome. Nutrients, 15(12), Article 2727. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15122727
    • van den Akker, G. G. H., Steijns, J. S. J. J., Stassen, R. H. M. J., Wasilewski, G. B., Peeters, L. C. W., Wijnands, K. A. P., Schurgers, L. J., Caron, M. M. J., van Rhijn, L. L. W., & Welting, T. J. M. (2023). Development of a cyclic-inverso AHSG/Fetuin A-based peptide for inhibition of calcification in osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, 31(6), 727-740. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joca.2022.11.007
    • Eelderink, C., Kremer, D., Riphagen, I. J., Knobbe, T. J., Schurgers, L. J., Pasch, A., Mulder, D. J., Corpeleijn, E., Navis, G., Bakker, S. J. L., Borst, M. H. D., & Velde-Keyzer, C. A. T. (2023). Effect of vitamin K supplementation on serum calcification propensity and arterial stiffness in vitamin K-deficient kidney transplant recipients: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. American Journal of Transplantation, 23(4), 520-530. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajt.2022.12.015
    • Roumeliotis, S., Neofytou, I. E., Maassen, C., Lux, P., Kantartzi, K., Papachristou, E., Schurgers, L. J., & Liakopoulos, V. (2023). Association of Red Blood Cell Distribution Width and Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio with Calcification and Cardiovascular Markers in Chronic Kidney Disease. Metabolites, 13(2), Article 303. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13020303
    • Pavlic, A., Poelman, H., Wasilewski, G., Wichapong, K., Lux, P., Maassen, C., Lutgens, E., Schurgers, L. J., Reutelingsperger, C. P., & Nicolaes, G. A. F. (2023). Inhibition of Neutral Sphingomyelinase 2 by Novel Small Molecule Inhibitors Results in Decreased Release of Extracellular Vesicles by Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells and Attenuated Calcification. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 24(3), Article 2027. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24032027
    • Piscaer, I., Janssen, R., Franssen, F. M. E., Schurgers, L. J., & Wouters, E. F. M. (2023). The Pleiotropic Role of Vitamin K in Multimorbidity of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 12(4), Article 1261. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12041261
    • Dzhanaev, R., Hasberg, C., Gorgels, A., Schmitz, C., Winkler, C. F., Malyaran, H., Graeber, S., Gentier, A., Jaminon, A., Agten, S., Hackeng, T., Akbulut, A. C., Schurgers, L., Mottaghy, F. M., Goettsch, C., & Jahnen-Dechent, W. (2023). Application of the mineral-binding protein fetuin-A for the detection of calcified lesions. Theranostics, 13(2), 659-672. https://doi.org/10.7150/thno.78773
    • Fontaine, M. A. C., Jin, H., Gagliardi, M., Rousch, M., Wijnands, E., Stoll, M., Li, X., Schurgers, L., Reutelingsperger, C., Schalkwijk, C., van den Akker, N. M. S., Molin, D. G. M., Gullestad, L., Eritsland, J., Hoffman, P., Skjelland, M., Andersen, G. Ø., Aukrust, P., Karel, J., ... Biessen, E. A. L. (2023). Blood Milieu in Acute Myocardial Infarction Reprograms Human Macrophages for Trauma Repair. Advanced Science, 10(5), Article 2203053. https://doi.org/10.1002/advs.202203053
    • Aberger, S., Findenig, B., Beil, J., Aichinger, N., Koller, J., Vermeer, C., Schurgers, L., Theuwissen, E., More, E., Franzen, M., Kronberger, C., & Salmhofer, H. (2023). Common Histological Features Suggesting Enchondral Ossification Pathways in Calciphylaxis of Various Origins: A Study of Human Subcutaneous Tissue Biopsies. Acta Dermato-Venereologica, 103, Article adv5755. https://doi.org/10.2340/actadv.v103.5755
  • 2022
    • Beghi, S., Furmanik, M., Jaminon, A., Veltrop, R., Rapp, N., Wichapong, K., Bidar, E., Buschini, A., & Schurgers, L. J. (2022). Calcium Signalling in Heart and Vessels: Role of Calmodulin and Downstream Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases. International journal of molecular sciences, 23(24), Article 16139. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232416139
    • Kemp, J. A., Alvarenga, L., Cardozo, L. F. M. F., Dai, L., Stenvinkel, P., Shiels, P. G., Hackeng, T. M., Schurgers, L. J., & Mafra, D. (2022). Dysbiosis in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: Let Us Talk About Vitamin K. Current nutrition reports, 11(4), 765-779. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13668-022-00438-9
    • Clarke, P., Shearer, M. J., Card, D. J., Nichols, A., Ponnusamy, V., Mahaveer, A., Voong, K., Dockery, K., Holland, N., Mulla, S., Hall, L. J., Maassen, C., Lux, P., Schurgers, L. J., & Harrington, D. J. (2022). Exclusively breastmilk-fed preterm infants are at high risk of developing subclinical vitamin K deficiency despite intramuscular prophylaxis at birth. Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 20(12), 2773-2785. https://doi.org/10.1111/jth.15874
    • Saritas, T., Reinartz, S., Kruger, T., Ketteler, M., Liangos, O., Labriola, L., Stenvinkel, P., Kopp, C., Westenfeld, R., Evenepoel, P., Siepmann, R., Wied, S., Hilgers, R. D., Schurgers, L., Floege, J., & VitaVasK Investigators (2022). Vitamin K1 and progression of cardiovascular calcifications in hemodialysis patients: the VitaVasK randomized controlled trial. Clinical Kidney Journal, 15(12), 2300-2311. https://doi.org/10.1093/ckj/sfac184
    • Nagy, M., van der Meijden, P. E. J., Glunz, J., Schurgers, L., Lutgens, E., Ten Cate, H., Heitmeier, S., & Spronk, H. M. H. (2022). Integrating Mechanisms in Thrombotic Peripheral Arterial Disease. Pharmaceuticals, 15(11), Article 1428. https://doi.org/10.3390/ph15111428
    • Kuppe, C., Ramirez Flores, R. O., Li, Z., Hayat, S., Levinson, R. T., Liao, X., Hannani, M. T., Tanevski, J., Wünnemann, F., Nagai, J. S., Halder, M., Schumacher, D., Menzel, S., Schäfer, G., Hoeft, K., Cheng, M., Ziegler, S., Zhang, X., Peisker, F., ... Kramann, R. (2022). Spatial multi-omic map of human myocardial infarction. Nature, 608(7924), 766-777. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-022-05060-x
    • Roumeliotis, S., Roumeliotis, A., Georgianos, P. I., Thodis, E., Schurgers, L. J., Maresz, K., Eleftheriadis, T., Dounousi, E., Tripepi, G., Mallamaci, F., & Liakopoulos, V. (2022). VItamin K In PEritonial DIAlysis (VIKIPEDIA): Rationale and study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. PLOS ONE, 17(8), Article e0273102. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0273102
    • Pavlic, A., Bahram Sangani, N., Kerins, J., Nicolaes, G., Schurgers, L., & Reutelingsperger, C. (2022). Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Neutral Sphingomyelinase 2 in the Release of Exosomes and Vascular Calcification. International journal of molecular sciences, 23(16), Article 9178. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23169178
    • Ebert, T., Tran, N., Schurgers, L., Stenvinkel, P., & Shiels, P. G. (2022). Ageing - Oxidative stress, PTMs and disease. Molecular Aspects of Medicine, 86, Article 101099. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mam.2022.101099
    • Oggero, S., Godec, T., van Gorp, R., Pinto, L. A., Schurgers, J. L., Reutelingsperger, C., Sever, P., Norling, L. V., Perretti, M., & Gupta, A. (2022). Role of plasma extracellular vesicles in prediction of cardiovascular risk and alterations in response to statin therapy in hypertensive patients. Journal of Hypertension, 40(8), 1522-1529. https://doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000003178
    • Hermann, J., Schurgers, L., & Jankowski, V. (2022). Identification and characterization of post-translational modifications: Clinical implications. Molecular Aspects of Medicine, 86, Article 101066. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mam.2022.101066
    • Klein, L., Ophelders, D. R. M. G., van den Hove, D., Damoiseaux, M., Rutten, B. P. F., Reutelingsperger, C. P. M., Schurgers, L. J., & Wolfs, T. G. A. M. (2022). Prenatal administration of multipotent adult progenitor cells modulates the systemic and cerebral immune response in an ovine model of chorioamnionitis. Brain, Behavior, & Immunity - Health, 23, Article 100458. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbih.2022.100458
    • Petsophonsakul, P., Burgmaier, M., Willems, B., Heeneman, S., Stadler, N., Gremse, F., Reith, S., Burgmaier, K., Kahles, F., Marx, N., Natour, E., Bidar, E., Jacobs, M., Mees, B., Reutelingsperger, C., Furmanik, M., & Schurgers, L. (2022). Nicotine promotes vascular calcification via intracellular Ca2+-mediated, Nox5-induced oxidative stress and extracellular vesicle release in vascular smooth muscle cells. Cardiovascular Research, 118(9), 2196-2210. https://doi.org/10.1093/cvr/cvab244
    • Jaminon, A. M. G., Rapp, N., Akbulut, A. C., Dzhanaev, R., Reutelingsperger, C. P., Jahnen-Dechent, W., & Schurgers, L. J. (2022). A Semi-Automated and Reproducible Biological-Based Method to Quantify Calcium Deposition In Vitro. Journal of visualized experiment, 2022(184), Article e64029. https://doi.org/10.3791/64029
    • Kremer, D., Groothof, D., Keyzer, C. A., Eelderink, C., Knobbe, T. J., Post, A., van Londen, M., Eisenga, M. F., Schurgers, L. J., Berger, S. P., de Borst, M. H., Bakker, S. J. L., & TransplantLines Investigators (2022). Reply to Janssen et al. Comment on "Kremer et al. Kidney Function-Dependence of Vitamin K-Status Parameters: Results from the TransplantLines Biobank and Cohort Studies. Nutrients 2021, 13, 3069". Nutrients, 14(12), Article 2440. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14122440
    • Bhargava, S., de la Puente-Secades, S., Schurgers, L., & Jankowski, J. (2022). Lipids and lipoproteins in cardiovascular diseases: a classification. Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism, 33(6), 409-423. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tem.2022.02.001
    • Leenders, N. H. J., Bos, C., Hoekstra, T., Schurgers, L. J., Vervloet, M. G., & Hoenderop, J. G. J. (2022). Dietary magnesium supplementation inhibits abdominal vascular calcification in an experimental animal model of chronic kidney disease. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 37(6), 1049-1058. https://doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfac026
    • Viegas, C. S. B., Araújo, N., Carreira, J., Pontes, J. F., Macedo, A. L., Vinhas, M., Moreira, A. S., Faria, T. Q., Grenha, A., de Matos, A. A., Schurgers, L., Vermeer, C., & Simes, D. C. (2022). Nanoencapsulation of Gla-Rich Protein (GRP) as a Novel Approach to Target Inflammation. International journal of molecular sciences, 23(9), Article 4813. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23094813
    • Stöhr, R., Dirrichs, T., Kneizeh, K., Reinartz, S., Frank, D., Brachmann, J., Schroeder, J., Schurgers, L., Göttsch, C., Keszei, A., Floege, J., Marx, N., Brandenburg, V., & Schuh, A. (2022). Influence of rivaroxaban compared to vitamin K antagonist treatment upon development of cardiovascular calcification in patients with atrial fibrillation and/or pulmonary embolism. Clinical Cardiology, 45(4), 352-358. https://doi.org/10.1002/clc.23819
    • Neradova, A., Wasilewski, G., Prisco, S., Leenders, P., Caron, M., Welting, T., van Rietbergen, B., Kramann, R., Floege, J., Vervloet, M. G., & Schurgers, L. J. (2022). Combining phosphate binder therapy with vitamin K2 inhibits vascular calcification in an experimental animal model of kidney failure. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 37(4), 652-662. https://doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfab314
    • van Kuijk, K., Demandt, J. A. F., Perales-Patón, J., Theelen, T. L., Kuppe, C., Marsch, E., de Bruijn, J., Jin, H., Gijbels, M. J., Matic, L., Mees, B. M. E., Reutelingsperger, C. P. M., Hedin, U., Biessen, E. A. L., Carmeliet, P., Baker, A. H., Kramann, R. K., Schurgers, L. J., Saez-Rodriguez, J., & Sluimer, J. C. (2022). Deficiency of myeloid PHD proteins aggravates atherogenesis via macrophage apoptosis and paracrine fibrotic signalling. Cardiovascular Research, 118(5), 1232-1246. https://doi.org/10.1093/cvr/cvab152
    • Visser, M. P. J., Dofferhoff, A. S. M., van den Ouweland, J. M. W., van Daal, H., Kramers, C., Schurgers, L. J., Janssen, R., & Walk, J. (2022). Corrigendum: Effects of Vitamin D and K on Interleukin-6 in COVID-19. Frontiers in nutrition, 9, Article 868324. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2022.868324
    • Kaesler, N., Schreibing, F., Speer, T., Puente-Secades, S. D. L., Rapp, N., Drechsler, C., Kabgani, N., Kuppe, C., Boor, P., Jankowski, V., Schurgers, L., Kramann, R., & Floege, J. (2022). Altered vitamin K biodistribution and metabolism in experimental and human chronic kidney disease. Kidney International, 101(2), 338-348. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.kint.2021.10.029
    • Skenteris, N. T., Seime, T., Witasp, A., Karlöf, E., Wasilewski, G. B., Heuschkel, M. A., Jaminon, A. M. G., Oduor, L., Dzhanaev, R., Kronqvist, M., Lengquist, M., Peeters, F. E. C. M., Söderberg, M., Hultgren, R., Roy, J., Maegdefessel, L., Arnardottir, H., Bengtsson, E., Goncalves, I., ... Matic, L. (2022). Osteomodulin attenuates smooth muscle cell osteogenic transition in vascular calcification. Clinical and Translational Medicine, 12(2), Article 682. https://doi.org/10.1002/ctm2.682
    • Visser, M. P. J., Dofferhoff, A. S. M., van den Ouweland, J. M. W., van Daal, H., Kramers, C., Schurgers, L. J., Janssen, R., & Walk, J. (2022). Effects of Vitamin D and K on Interleukin-6 in COVID-19. Frontiers in nutrition, 8, Article 761191. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2021.761191
    • van der Laan, K. W. F., Reesink, K. D., van der Bruggen, M. M., Jaminon, A. M. G., Schurgers, L. J., Megens, R. T. A., Huberts, W., Delhaas, T., & Spronck, B. (2022). Improved Quantification of Cell Density in the Arterial Wall-A Novel Nucleus Splitting Approach Applied to 3D Two-Photon Laser-Scanning Microscopy. Frontiers in physiology, 12, Article 814434. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.814434
    • Kaczor, D. M., Kramann, R., Hackeng, T. M., Schurgers, L. J., & Koenen, R. R. (2022). Differential Effects of Platelet Factor 4 (CXCL4) and Its Non-Allelic Variant (CXCL4L1) on Cultured Human Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 23(2), Article 580. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23020580
    • Roumeliotis, S., Liakopoulos, V., & Schurgers, L. J. (2022). Vitamin K supplementation in chronic kidney disease patients: where is the evidence?Current Vascular Pharmacology, 20(2), 121-126. https://doi.org/10.2174/1570161120666220209145341
  • 2021
    • Tobal, R., Potjewijd, J., van Empel, V. P. M., Ysermans, R., Schurgers, L. J., Reutelingsperger, C. P., Damoiseaux, J. G. M. C., & van Paassen, P. (2021). Vascular Remodeling in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: The Potential Involvement of Innate and Adaptive Immunity. Frontiers in medicine, 8, Article 806899. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2021.806899
    • Dofferhoff, A. S. M., Piscaer, I., Schurgers, L. J., Visser, M. P. J., van den Ouweland, J. M. W., de Jong, P. A., Gosens, R., Hackeng, T. M., van Daal, H., Lux, P., Maassen, C., Karssemeijer, E. G. A., Vermeer, C., Wouters, E. F. M., Kistemaker, L. E. M., Walk, J., & Janssen, R. (2021). Reduced Vitamin K Status as a Potentially Modifiable Risk Factor of Severe Coronavirus Disease 2019. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 73(11), E4039-E4046. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa1258
    • Groothof, D., Post, A., Sotomayor, C. G., Keyzer, C. A., Flores-Guerero, J. L., Hak, E., Bos, J. H. J., Schurgers, L. J., Navis, G. J., Gans, R. O. B., Eelderink, C., de Borst, M. H., Bakker, S. J. L., & Riphagen, I. J. (2021). Functional vitamin K status and risk of incident chronic kidney disease and microalbuminuria: a prospective general population-based cohort study. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 36(12), 2290-2299. https://doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfaa304
    • Hariri, E., Kassis, N., Iskandar, J. P., Schurgers, L. J., Saad, A., Abdelfattah, O., Bansal, A., Isogai, T., Harb, S. C., & Kapadia, S. (2021). Vitamin K-2-a neglected player in cardiovascular health: a narrative review. Open Heart, 8(2), Article e001715. https://doi.org/10.1136/openhrt-2021-001715
    • Kaesler, N., Schurgers, L. J., & Floege, J. (2021). Vitamin K and cardiovascular complications in chronic kidney disease patients. Kidney International, 100(5), 1023-1036. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.kint.2021.06.037