Bram Kroon

Professor

Bram Kroon is Pprofessor of Vascular Medicine and Chair of the section of Vascular Medicine of the Department of Internal Medicine at the Maastricht UMC+, and since 2013 Principal Investigator for 'vascular complications of diabetes and hypertension' with a special focus on hypertension and arterial stiffening at CARIM. Bram (A.A.) Kroon (born Geleen, 1959) obtained an MD at the Radboud University in Nijmegen (1984). He was registered as internist in 1990 and obtained a PhD in 1996 (Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen). In 2010, he accepted the position as Chair of the section of Vascular Medicine, a subdivision of the Department of Internal Medicine. In 2016, he was appointed Professor of Vascular Medicine. Nationwide, he holds the Chair of educational board for Vascular Medicine specialists and is member of the Concilium Medicinae Internae since 2015. He is a board member of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) Working Group of Intervention Treatment of Hypertension and a member of the ESH Working Group of Hypertension and the Kidney.

Department of Internal Medicine
P. Debyelaan 25, 6229 HX Maastricht 
PO Box 5800, 6202 AZ Maastricht
T: +31 (0)43 387 50 05 (4)

  • 2017
    • Geijselaers, S. L. C., Sep, S. J. S., Schram, M. T., van Boxtel, M. P. J., Henry, R. M. A., Verhey, F. R. J., Kroon, A. A., Schaper, N. C., Dagnelie, P. C., Kallen, C. J. H. V. D., Stehouwer, C. D. A., & Biessels, G. J. (2017). Insulin resistance and cognitive performance in type 2 diabetes - The Maastricht study. Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications, 31(5), 824-830. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2017.01.020
    • de Leeuw, P. W., Bisognano, J. D., Bakris, G. L., Nadim, M. K., Haller, H., Kroon, A. A., & DEBuT- HT Rheos Trial Investig (2017). Sustained Reduction of Blood Pressure With Baroreceptor Activation Therapy Results of the 6-Year Open Follow-Up. Hypertension, 69(5), 836-843. https://doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.117.09086
    • Veugen, M. G. J., Henry, R. M. A., van Sloten, T. T., Hermeling, E., Brunner-La Rocca, H-P., Schram, M. T., Dagnelie, P. C., Schalkwijk, C. G., Kroon, A. A., Stehouwer, C. D. A., & Reesink, K. D. (2017). The systolic-diastolic difference in carotid stiffness is increased in type 2 diabetes: The Maastricht Study. Journal of Hypertension, 35(5), 1052-1060. https://doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000001298
    • Ridker, P. M., Revkin, J., Amarenco, P., Brunell, R., Curto, M., Civeira, F., Flather, M., Glynn, R. J., Gregoire, J., Jukema, J. W., Karpov, Y., Kastelein, J. J. P., Koenig, W., Lorenzatti, A., Manga, P., Masiukiewicz, U., Miller, M., Mosterd, A., Murin, J., ... Tardif, J. -C. (2017). Cardiovascular Efficacy and Safety of Bococizumab in High-Risk Patients. New England Journal of Medicine, 376(16), 1527-1539. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1701488
    • Martens, R. J. H., Kimenai, D. M., Kooman, J. P., Stehouwer, C. D. A., Tan, F. E. S., Bekers, O., Dagnelie, P. C., van der Kallen, C. J. H., Kroon, A. A., Leunissen, K. M. L., van der Sande, F. M., Schaper, N. C., Sep, S. J. S., Schram, M. T., van Suijlen, J. D., van Dieijen-Visser, M. P., Meex, S. J. R., & Henry, R. M. A. (2017). Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate and Albuminuria Are Associated with Biomarkers of Cardiac Injury in a Population-Based Cohort Study: The Maastricht Study. Clinical Chemistry, 63(4), 887-897. https://doi.org/10.1373/clinchem.2016.266031
    • van Twist, D. J. L., Houben, A. J. H. M., de Haan, M. W., de Leeuw, P. W., & Kroon, A. A. (2017). Pathophysiological differences betweenmultifocal fibromuscular dysplasia and atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis. Journal of Hypertension, 35(4), 845-852. https://doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000001243
    • Wachter, R., Halbach, M., Bakris, G. L., Bisognano, J. D., Haller, H., Beige, J., Kroon, A. A., Nadim, M. K., Lovett, E. G., Schafer, J. E., & de Leeuw, P. W. (2017). An exploratory propensity score matched comparison of second-generation and first-generation baroreflex activation therapy systems. Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, 11(2), 81-91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jash.2016.12.003
    • Martens, R. J. H., Kooman, J. P., Stehouwer, C. D. A., Dagnelie, P. C., van der Kallen, C. J. H., Koster, A., Kroon, A. A., Leunissen, K. M. L., Nijpels, G., van der Sande, F. M., Schaper, N. C., Sep, S. J. S., van Boxtel, M. P. J., Schram, M. T., & Henry, R. M. A. (2017). Estimated GFR, Albuminuria, and Cognitive Performance: The Maastricht Study. American Journal of Kidney Diseases, 69(2), 179-191. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2016.04.017
    • van Twist, D. J. L., van de laar, R. J. J. M., Brans, R. J. B., Refos, J. W. J., & Kroon, A. A. (2017). A 34-year-old man with back pain. Netherlands Journal of Medicine, 75(1), 45-46. http://www.njmonline.nl/article_ft.php?a=1809&d=1199&i=202
    • van Varik, B. J., Vossen, L. M., Rennenberg, R. J., Stoffers, H. E., Kessels, A. G., de Leeuw, P. W., & Kroon, A. A. (2017). Arterial stiffness and decline of renal function in a primary care population. Hypertension Research, 40(1), 73-78. https://doi.org/10.1038/hr.2016.113
  • 2016
    • Uiterwijk, R., van Oostenbrugge, R. J., Huijts, M., De Leeuw, P. W., Kroon, A. A., & Staals, J. (2016). Total Cerebral Small Vessel Disease MRI Score Is Associated with Cognitive Decline in Executive Function in Patients with Hypertension. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, 8, [301]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2016.00301
    • Martens, R. J. H., Henry, R. M. A., Houben, A. J. H. M., van der Kallen, C. J. H., Kroon, A. A., Schalkwijk, C. G., Schram, M. T., Sep, S. J. S., Schaper, N. C., Dagnelie, P. C., Muris, D. M. J., Gronenschild, E. H. B. M., van der Sande, F. M., Leunissen, K. M. L., Kooman, J. P., & Stehouwer, C. D. A. (2016). Capillary Rarefaction Associates with Albuminuria: The Maastricht Study. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 27(12), 3748-3757. https://doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2015111219
    • Sörensen, B., Houben, B., Berendschot, T. T. J. M., Schouten, J. S. A. G., Kroon, A. A., van der Kallen, C. J. H., Henry, R. M. A., Koster, A., Sep, S. J. S., Dagnelie, P. C., Schaper, N. C., Schram, M. T., & Stehouwer, C. D. A. (2016). Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes Are Associated With Generalized Microvascular Dysfunction The Maastricht Study. Circulation, 134(18), 1339-1352. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.116.023446
    • Schutten, M. T. J., Houben, A. J. H. M., Kroon, A. A., Stehouwer, C. D. A., & de Leeuw, P. W. (2016). Aldosterone-Renin Ratio and Side-Selective Renal Perfusion in Essential Hypertension. American Journal of Hypertension, 29(11), 1311-1316. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajh/hpw077
    • Geijselaers, S. L. C., Sep, S. J. S., Schram, M. T., van Boxtel, M. P. J., van Sloten, T. T., Henry, R. M. A., Reesink, K. D., Kroon, A. A., Koster, A., Schaper, N. C., Dagnelie, P. C., van der Kallen, C. J. H., Biessels, G. J., & Stehouwer, C. D. A. (2016). Carotid stiffness is associated with impairment of cognitive performance in individuals with and without type 2 diabetes. The Maastricht Study. Atherosclerosis, 253, 186-193. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2016.07.912
    • van Eupen, M. G. A., Schram, M. T., van Sloten, T. T., Scheijen, J., Sep, S. J. S., van der Kallen, C. J., Dagnelie, P. C., Koster, A., Schaper, N., Henry, R. M. A., Kroon, A. A., Smit, A. J., Stehouwer, C. D. A., & Schalkwijk, C. G. (2016). Skin Autofluorescence and Pentosidine Are Associated With Aortic Stiffening: The Maastricht Study. Hypertension, 68(4), 956-963. https://doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.116.07446
    • van Twist, D. J. L., Houben, A. J. H. M., de Leeuw, P. W., & Kroon, A. A. (2016). Acute eprosartan-induced intrarenal vasodilation in hypertensive humans is not influenced by dietary sodium intake or angiotensin II co-infusion. Journal of Hypertension, 34(8), 1607-1614. https://doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000000974
    • van Twist, D. J. L., Houben, B., de Haan, M. W., de Leeuw, P. W., & Kroon, A. A. (2016). Renal hemodynamics and renin-angiotensin system activity in humans with multifocal renal artery fibromuscular dysplasia. Journal of Hypertension, 34(6), 1160-1169. https://doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000000917
    • de Rooij, B. H., van der Berg, J. D., van der Kallen, C. J. H., Schram, M. T., Savelberg, H. H. C. M., Schaper, N. C., Dagnelie, P. C., Henry, R. M. A., Kroon, A. A., Stehouwer, C. D. A., & Koster, A. (2016). Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Metabolically Healthy versus Unhealthy Obese and Non-Obese Individuals - The Maastricht Study. PLOS ONE, 11(5), [e0154358]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0154358
    • Martens, R., Kooman, J. P., Stehouwer, C. D. A., Dagnelie, P. C., van der Kallen, C. J. H., Koster, A., Kroon, A. A., Leunissen, K. M. L., Nijpels, G., van der Sande, F. M., Schaper, N. C., Sep, S. J. S., Verhey, F. R. J., van Boxtel, M. P. J., Schram, M. T., & Henry, R. M. A. (2016). ESTIMATED GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE, (MICRO) ALBUMINURIA AND COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE: THE MAASTRICHT STUDY. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 31(S1), i192. https://doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfw165.25
    • Uiterwijk, R., Huijts, M., Staals, J., Rouhl, R. P. W., De Leeuw, P. W., Kroon, A. A., & Van Oostenbrugge, R. J. (2016). Endothelial Activation Is Associated With Cognitive Performance in Patients With Hypertension. American Journal of Hypertension, 29(4), 464-469. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajh/hpv122
    • Sanders, M. F., Blankestijn, P. J., Voskuil, M., Spiering, W., Vonken, E. J., Rotmans, J. I., van der Hoeven, B. L., Daemen, J., van den Meiracker, A. H., Kroon, A. A., de Haan, M. W., Das, M., Bax, M., van der Meer, I. M., van Overhagen, H., van den Born, B. J. H., van Brussel, P. M., van der Valk, P. H. M., Gregoor, P. J. H. S., ... Bots, M. L. (2016). Safety and long-term effects of renal denervation: Rationale and design of the Dutch registry. Netherlands Journal of Medicine, 74(1), 5-15.
  • 2015
    • Vossen, L. M., Schurgers, L. J., van Varik, B. J., Kietselaer, B. L. J. H., Vermeer, C., Meeder, J. G., Rahel, B. M., van Cauteren, Y. J. M., Hoffland, G. A., Rennenberg, R. J. M. W., Reesink, K. D., de Leeuw, P. W., & Kroon, A. A. (2015). Menaquinone-7 Supplementation to Reduce Vascular Calcification in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease: Rationale and Study Protocol (VitaK-CAC Trial). Nutrients, 7(11), 8905-8915. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7115443
    • Alnima, T., de Leeuw, P. W., & Kroon, A. A. (2015). Baropacing as a new option for treatment of resistant hypertension. European Journal of Pharmacology, 763, 23-27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2015.03.097
    • Spauwen, P. J. J., van Boxtel, M. P. J., Verhey, F. R. J., Kohler, S., Sep, S. J. S., Koster, A., Dagnelie, P. C., Henry, R. M. A., Schaper, N. C., van der Kallen, C. J. H., Schram, M. T., Kroon, A. A., & Stehouwer, C. D. A. (2015). Both Low and High 24-Hour Diastolic Blood Pressure Are Associated With Worse Cognitive Performance in Type 2 Diabetes: The Maastricht Study. Diabetes Care, 38(8), 1473-1480. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc14-2502
    • Spronck, B., Heusinkveld, M. H. G., Donders, W. P., de Lepper, A. G. W., Op't Roodt, J., Kroon, A. A., Delhaas, T., & Reesink, K. D. (2015). A constitutive modeling interpretation of the relationship among carotid artery stiffness, blood pressure, and age in hypertensive subjects. American Journal of Physiology-heart and Circulatory Physiology, 308(6), H568-H582. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00290.2014
    • Spronck, B., Heusinkveld, M. H. G., Vanmolkot, F. H., 't Roodt, J. O., Hermeling, E., Delhaas, T., Kroon, A. A., & Reesink, K. D. (2015). Pressure-dependence of arterial stiffness: potential clinical implications. Journal of Hypertension, 33(2), 330-338. https://doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000000407
    • de Leeuw, P. W., Alnima, T., Lovett, E., Sica, D., Bisognano, J., Haller, H., & Kroon, A. A. (2015). Bilateral or Unilateral Stimulation for Baroreflex Activation Therapy. Hypertension, 65(1), 187-192. https://doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.114.04492
    • van Twist, D. J. L., & Kroon, A. (2015). Hypertensie bij de jonge patient: wanneer moet u denken aan een secundaire oorzaak?Huisarts en Wetenschap.
    • Krekels, M. M. E., Kroon, A. A., & de Leeuw, P. W. (2015). Sodium Intake as a Modulator of Kidney Function. Current hypertension reviews, 11(1), 57-60. https://doi.org/10.2174/1573402111666150530204512
    • van Onzenoort, H. A. W., Verberk, W., Kessels, A. G. H., Kroon, A., Neef, K., van der Kuy, P. H. M., & de Leeuw, P. (2015). Therapietrouw bij de behandeling van hypertensie: combinatie van meetmethoden geeft meer inzicht in innamegedrag. Pharmaceutisch Weekblad, 9, 9-15.
  • 2014
    • Muris, D. M. J., Houben, A. J. H. M., Kroon, A. A., Henry, R. M. A., van der Kallen, C. J. H., Sep, S. J. S., Koster, A., Dagnelie, P. C., Schram, M. T., & Stehouwer, C. D. A. (2014). Age, waist circumference, and blood pressure are associated with skin microvascular flow motion: The Maastricht Study. Journal of Hypertension, 32(12), 2439-2449. https://doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000000348
    • Van Twist, D. J. L., Houben, A. J. H. M., De Haan, M. W., Mostard, G. J. M., De Leeuw, P. W., & Kroon, A. A. (2014). Angiotensin-(1-7)-induced renal vasodilation is reduced in human kidneys with renal artery stenosis. Journal of Hypertension, 32(12), 2428-2432. https://doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000000351
    • van Twist, D. J. L., Kroon, A. A., & de Leeuw, P. W. (2014). Angiotensin-(1-7) as a strategy in the treatment of hypertension?Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension, 23(5), 480-486. https://doi.org/10.1097/MNH.0000000000000050
    • Uiterwijk, R., Huijts, M., Staals, J., Duits, A., Gronenschild, E., Kroon, A. A., de Leeuw, P. W., & van Oostenbrugge, R. J. (2014). Subjective Cognitive Failures in Patients With Hypertension Are Related to Cognitive Performance and Cerebral Microbleeds. Hypertension, 64(3), 653-657. https://doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.114.03621
    • Alnima, T., Kroon, A. A., & de Leeuw, P. W. (2014). Baroreflex activation therapy for patients with drug-resistant hypertension. Expert review of cardiovascular therapy, 12(8), 955-62. https://doi.org/10.1586/14779072.2014.931226
    • van Dooren, M., Staals, J., de Leeuw, P. W., Kroon, A. A., Henskens, L. H., & van Oostenbrugge, R. J. (2014). Progression of Brain Microbleeds in Essential Hypertensive Patients: A 2-Year Follow-up Study. American Journal of Hypertension, 27(8), 1045-1051. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajh/hpu032
    • Ghossein-Doha, C., Spaanderman, M., van Kuijk, S. M. J., Kroon, A. A., Delhaas, T., & Peeters, L. (2014). Long-Term Risk to Develop Hypertension in Women With Former Preeclampsia: A Longitudinal Pilot Study. Reproductive Sciences, 21(7), 846-853. https://doi.org/10.1177/1933719113518989
    • Huijts, M., Duits, A., Staals, J., Kroon, A. A., de Leeuw, P. W., & van Oostenbrugge, R. J. (2014). Basal Ganglia Enlarged Perivascular Spaces are Linked to Cognitive Function in Patients with Cerebral Small Vessel Disease. Current Neurovascular Research, 11(2), 136-141. https://doi.org/10.2174/1567202611666140310102248
  • 2013
    • Huijts, M., Duits, A., van Oostenbrugge, R. J., Kroon, A. A., de Leeuw, P. W., & Staals, J. (2013). Accumulation of MRI markers of cerebral small vessel disease is associated with decreased cognitive function. A study in first-ever lacunar stroke and hypertensive patients. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, 5, [72]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2013.00072
    • van Twist, D. J. L., Houben, A. J. H. M., de Haan, M. W., Mostard, G. J. M., Kroon, A. A., & de Leeuw, P. W. (2013). Angiotensin-(1-7)-Induced Renal Vasodilation in Hypertensive Humans Is Attenuated by Low Sodium Intake and Angiotensin II Co-Infusion. Hypertension, 62(4), 789-793. https://doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.113.01814
    • Smit, J. V., Wierema, T. K. A., Kroon, A. A., & de Leeuw, P. W. (2013). Blood pressure and renal function before and after percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty in fibromuscular dysplasia: A cohort study. Journal of Hypertension, 31(6), 1183-1188. https://doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0b013e32836044b2
    • Alnima, T., de Leeuw, P. W., Tan, F. E. S., & Kroon, A. A. (2013). Renal Responses to Long-Term Carotid Baroreflex Activation Therapy in Patients With Drug-Resistant Hypertension. Hypertension, 61(6), 1334-U425. https://doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.113.01159
    • Weijs, B., de Vos, C. B., Tieleman, R. G., Peeters, F., Limantoro, I., Kroon, A. A., Cheriex, E. C., Pisters, R., & Crijns, H. J. G. M. (2013). The occurrence of cardiovascular disease during 5-year follow-up in patients with idiopathic atrial fibrillation. EP Europace, 15(1), 18-23. https://doi.org/10.1093/europace/eus203
  • 2012
    • Boesten, J. E. J., Kaper, J., Stoffers, H. E. J. H., Kroon, A. A., & van Schayck, O. C. P. (2012). Rimonabant improves obesity but not the overall cardiovascular risk and quality of life; results from CARDIO-REDUSE (CArdiometabolic Risk reDuctIOn by Rimonabant: the Effectiveness in Daily practice and its USE). Family Practice, 29(5), 521-527. https://doi.org/10.1093/fampra/cms013
    • Alnima, T., Scheffers, I., De Leeuw, P. W., Winkens, B., Jongen-Vancraybex, H., Tordoir, J. H. M., Schmidli, J., Mohaupt, M. G., Allemann, Y., & Kroon, A. A. (2012). Sustained acute voltage-dependent blood pressure decrease with prolonged carotid baroreflex activation in therapy-resistant hypertension. Journal of Hypertension, 30(8), 1665-1670. https://doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0b013e3283551f10
    • Rouhl, R. P. W., Damoiseaux, J. G. M. C., Lodder, J., Theunissen, R. O. M. F. I. H., Knottnerus, I. L. H., Staals, J., Henskens, L. H. G., Kroon, A. A., de Leeuw, P. W., Tervaert, J. W. C., & van Oostenbrugge, R. J. (2012). Vascular inflammation in cerebral small vessel disease. Neurobiology of Aging, 33(8), 1800-1806. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2011.04.008
    • Ronden, R. A., Houben, A. J. H. M., Teerlink, T., Bakker, J. A., Bierau, J., Stehouwer, C. D. A., De Leeuw, P. W., & Kroon, A. A. (2012). Reduced renal plasma clearance does not explain increased plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine in hypertensive subjects with mild to moderate renal insufficiency. American Journal of Physiology-Renal Physiology, 303(1), F149-F156. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajprenal.00045.2012