Coen Stehouwer


Prof. Coen Stehouwer (born Rotterdam, 1960) obtained an MD at the Erasmus University in Rotterdam (1985; cum laude). He was registered as internist in 1990 and obtained a PhD in 1992 (Vrije Universiteit Medical Centre, Amsterdam). He received postgraduate training in epidemiology and molecular biology. He was appointed professor of medicine and vice-chair of the Department of Medicine in 2000 at the Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam). In 2004, he accepted a position as professor of medicine and chair of the Department of Medicine at the University of Maastricht. Coen Stehouwer currently is Professor of Internal Medicine and Chair of the Department of Internal Medicine at Maastricht University in the Netherlands.

He is an internationally recognised clinician-scientist in the field of microcirculatory as well as large artery research, notably in the context of cardiovascular complications of diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Since 1990, the work of Professor Stehouwer and his group has led to 77 completed PhD theses, and more than 800 peer-reviewed papers in international journals.

His work is well-recognised, as shown by a Hirsh index of 109 (Web of Science); >52,000 citations; several awards, such as the Dr F. Gerritzen Award for excellent diabetes research (Dutch Diabetes Research Foundation, 1993); the Castelli-Pedroli Award for excellent research into the complications of diabetes (European Association for the Study of Diabetes, 2005); the Dutch Society of Vascular Medicine Career Award (2007); the Ruitenga Van Swieten honorary professorship of the University of Amsterdam (2009); and the Donald McDonald Award of Artery Society (2017); as well as many invited lectures at (inter)national meetings, such as those of the European Society for Microcirculation, the World Congress for Microcirculation, the European Society for the Study of Diabetes, the American Diabetes Association, the European Society for Cardiology, and the American Heart Association.

His research programme focuses on the elucidation of how metabolic changes in (pre)diabetes and the metabolic syndrome cause micro- and macrovascular disease. A key element of the programme is to combine epidemiology, clinical physiology and experimental approaches, in the conviction that these approaches should complement and mutually inspire each other. He is one of the principal investigators of the well-known Hoorn Study (since 1992). He also obtained national and European funding (16 M€) for, and is the initiator and Scientific Director of the Maastricht Study (started 2010), which combines very detailed phenotyping (with a focus on microcirculatory, large artery and cardiac function and structure) with an ‘omics’ approach in 7000 individuals without and 2000 with type 2 diabetes to elucidate how diabetes leads not only to classic complications but also to so-called emerging complications such as cognitive dysfunction, mood disorders, liver disease, musculoskeletal disease, pulmonary disease, sleep-disordered breathing, and infectious diseases.

Department of Internal Medicine
P. Debyelaan 25, 6229 HX Maastricht
PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht
T:+31(0)43 387 70 06

  • 2014
    • van Sloten, T. T., Henry, R. M. A., Dekker, J. M., Nijpels, G., Unger, T., Schram, M. T., & Stehouwer, C. D. A. (2014). Endothelial Dysfunction Plays a Key Role in Increasing Cardiovascular Risk in Type 2 Diabetes The Hoorn Study. Hypertension, 64(6), 1299-U293.
    • Herbert, A., Cruickshank, J. K., Laurent, S., The Reference Values for Arterial Measurements Collaboration, Stehouwer, C., Ferreira, I., Schalkwijk, C., van Greevenbroek, M., van der Kallen, C., van de Laar, R., Staessen, J., & Boutouyrie, P. (2014). Establishing reference values for central blood pressure and its amplification in a general healthy population and according to cardiovascular risk factors. European Heart Journal, 35(44), 3122-+.
    • Engelen, L., Soedamah-Muthu, S. S., Geleijnse, J. M., Toeller, M., Chaturvedi, N., Fuller, J. H., Schalkwijk, C. G., & Stehouwer, C. D. A. (2014). Higher dietary salt intake is associated with microalbuminuria, but not with retinopathy in individuals with type 1 diabetes: the EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study. Diabetologia, 57(11), 2315-2323.
    • Wijnands, J. M. A., Boonen, A., Dagnelie, P. C., van Greevenbroek, M. M. J., van der Kallen, C. J. H., Ferreira, I., Schalkwijk, C. G., Feskens, E. J. M., Stehouwer, C. D. A., van der Linden, S., & Arts, I. C. W. (2014). The cross-sectional association between uric acid and atherosclerosis and the role of low-grade inflammation: the CODAM study. Rheumatology, 53(11), 2053-2062.
    • Song, X., Tabak, A. G., Zethelius, B., Yudkin, J. S., Soederberg, S., Laatikainen, T., Stehouwer, C. D. A., Dankner, R., Jousilahti, P., Onat, A., Nilsson, P. M., Satman, I., Vaccaro, O., Tuomilehto, J., & Qiao, Q. (2014). Obesity attenuates gender differences in cardiovascular mortality. Cardiovascular Diabetology, 13, [144].
    • Hanssen, N. M. J., Brouwers, O., Gijbels, M. J., Wouters, K., Wijnands, E., Cleutjens, J. P. M., De Mey, J. G., Miyata, T., Biessen, E. A., Stehouwer, C. D. A., & Schalkwijk, C. G. (2014). Glyoxalase 1 overexpression does not affect atherosclerotic lesion size and severity in ApoE(-/-) mice with or without diabetes. Cardiovascular Research, 104(1), 160-170.
    • Laurent, S., Vacsular Mechanism Collaboration, Stehouwer, C., & Boutouyrie, P. (2014). Dose-Dependent Arterial Destiffening and Inward Remodeling After Olmesartan in Hypertensives With Metabolic Syndrome. Hypertension, 64(4), 709-+.
    • Rutters, F., Pilz, S., Koopman, A. D., Rauh, S. P., Te Velde, S. J., Stehouwer, C. D., Elders, P. J., Nijpels, G., & Dekker, J. M. (2014). The association between psychosocial stress and mortality is mediated by lifestyle and chronic diseases: The Hoorn Study. Social Science & Medicine, 118, 166-172.
    • Hertle, E., Stehouwer, C. D. A., & van Greevenbroek, M. M. J. (2014). The complement system in human cardiometabolic disease. Molecular Immunology, 61(2), 135-148.
    • de Boer, M. P., Wijnstok, N. J., Serne, E. H., Eringa, E. C., Stehouwer, C. D. A., Flyvbjerg, A., Hoekstra, T., Heymans, M. W., Meijer, R. I., Twisk, J. W., & Smulders, Y. M. (2014). Body mass index is related to microvascular vasomotion, this is partly explained by adiponectin. European Journal of Clinical Investigation, 44(7), 660-667.
    • Wlazlo, N., van Greevenbroek, M. M. J., Ferreira, I., Feskens, E. J. M., van der Kallen, C. J. H., Schalkwijk, C. G., Bravenboer, B., & Stehouwer, C. D. A. (2014). Complement Factor 3 Is Associated With Insulin Resistance and With Incident Type 2 Diabetes Over a 7-Year Follow-up Period: The CODAM Study. Diabetes Care, 37(7), 1900-1909.
    • de Boer, M. P., Meijer, R. I., Newman, J., Stehouwer, C. D. A., Eringa, E. C., Smulders, Y. M., & Serne, E. H. (2014). Insulin-Induced Changes in Microvascular Vasomotion and Capillary Recruitment are Associated in Humans. Microcirculation, 21(5), 380-387.
    • Muris, D. M. J., Gronenschild, E. H. B. M., Schram, M. T., Karaca, U., Stehouwer, C. D. A., & Houben, A. J. H. M. (2014). Response to comment on: Semi-automatic assessment of skin capillary density: Proof of principle and validation. Microvascular Research, 94, 7-8.
    • Blom, M. T., Cohen, D., Seldenrijk, A., Penninx, B. W. J. H., Nijpels, G., Stehouwer, C. D. A., Dekker, J. M., & Tan, H. L. (2014). Brugada Syndrome ECG Is Highly Prevalent in Schizophrenia. Circulation-Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology, 7(3), 384-391.
    • Bots, M. L., Groenewegen, K. A., Anderson, T. J., Britton, A. R., Dekker, J. M., Engstrom, G., Evans, G. W., de Graaf, J., Grobbee, D. E., Hedblad, B., Hofman, A., Holewijn, S., Ikeda, A., Kavousi, M., Kitagawa, K., Kitamura, A., Ikram, M. A., Lonn, E. M., Lorenz, M. W., ... den Ruijter, H. M. (2014). Common Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Measurements Do Not Improve Cardiovascular Risk Prediction in Individuals With Elevated Blood Pressure The USE-IMT Collaboration. Hypertension, 63(6), 1173-1181.
    • Hertle, E., van Greevenbroek, M. M., Arts, I. C., van der Kallen, C. J., Geijselaers, S. L., Feskens, E. J., Jansen, E. H., Schalkwijk, C. G., & Stehouwer, C. D. (2014). Distinct associations of complement C3a and its precursor C3 with atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease The CODAM study. Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 111(6), 1102-1111.
    • Smulders, Y. M., Serne, E. H., & Stehouwer, C. D. A. (2014). Divergent paradigm shifts in national, European and American cardiovascular prevention guidelines. Netherlands Journal of Medicine, 72(5), 289-293.
    • Pilz, S., Rutters, F., Nijpels, G., Stehouwer, C. D. A., Hojlund, K., Nolan, J. J., Balkau, B., & Dekker, J. M. (2014). Insulin Sensitivity and Albuminuria: The RISC Study. Diabetes Care, 37(6), 1597-1603.
    • van der Pols-Vijlbrief, R., Dekker, J. M., Stehouwer, C. D., de Boer, M. R., Nijpels, G., Snoek, F. J., & Adriaanse, M. C. (2014). Symptom burden and its association with change in glucose metabolism status over a 7-year period: the Hoorn Study. Diabetic Medicine, 31(6), 747-753.
    • van Sloten, T. T., Schram, M. T., van den Hurk, K., Dekker, J. M., Nijpels, G., Henry, R. M. A., & Stehouwer, C. D. A. (2014). Local Stiffness of the Carotid and Femoral Artery Is Associated With Incident Cardiovascular Events and All-Cause Mortality The Hoorn Study. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 63(17), 1739-1747.
    • Brouwers, M. C. G. J., van Greevenbroek, M. M. J., Konrad, R. J., Troutt, J. S., Schaper, N. C., & Stehouwer, C. D. A. (2014). Circulating PCSK9 is a strong determinant of plasma triacylglycerols and total cholesterol in homozygous carriers of apolipoprotein ε2. Clinical Science, 126(9), 679-684.
    • van Sloten, T. T., Schram, M. T., Adriaanse, M. C., Dekker, J. M., Nijpels, G., Teerlink, T., Scheffer, P. G., Pouwer, F., Schalkwijk, C. G., Stehouwer, C. D. A., & Henry, R. M. A. (2014). Endothelial dysfunction is associated with a greater depressive symptom score in a general elderly population: the Hoorn Study. Psychological Medicine, 44(7), 1403-1416.
    • Hanssen, N. M. J., Wouters, K., Huijberts, M. S., Gijbels, M. J., Sluimer, J. C., Scheijen, J. L. J. M., Heeneman, S., Biessen, E. A. L., Daemen, M. J. A. P., Brownlee, M., de Kleijn, D. P., Stehouwer, C. D. A., Pasterkamp, G., & Schalkwijk, C. G. (2014). Higher levels of advanced glycation endproducts in human carotid atherosclerotic plaques are associated with a rupture-prone phenotype. European Heart Journal, 35(17), 1137-1146.
    • Danielsen, I., Om, C. G., Rytter, D., Halldorsson, T. I., Bech, B. H., Henriksen, T. B., Stehouwer, C. D. A., Schalkwijk, C. G., Vaag, A. A., & Olsen, S. F. (2014). Subclinical Inflammation During Third Trimester of Pregnancy Was Not Associated with Markers of the Metabolic Syndrome in Young Adult Offspring. Obesity, 22(5), 1351-1358.
    • Heringa, S. M., Walraven, I., Moll, A. C., van den Berg, E., Nijpels, G., Stehouwer, C. D. A., Reijmer, Y. D., Kappelle, L. J., Dekker, J. M., & Biessels, G. J. (2014). VASCULAR RETINOPATHY IN RELATION TO COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING IN AN OLDER POPULATION-THE HOORN STUDY. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 62(5), 977-979.
    • Schram, M. T., Sep, S. J. S., van der Kallen, C. J., Dagnelie, P. C., Koster, A., Schaper, N., Henry, R. M. A., & Stehouwer, C. D. A. (2014). The Maastricht Study: an extensive phenotyping study on determinants of type 2 diabetes, its complications and its comorbidities. European Journal of Epidemiology, 29(6), 439-451.
    • Hillebrand, S., de Mutsert, R., den Heijer, M., le Cessie, S., Stehouwer, C. D. A., Nijpels, G., & Dekker, J. M. (2014). Autonomic function is not associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes in a high-risk population: The Hoorn study. Diabetes & Metabolism, 40(2), 128-136.
    • Hanssen, N. M. J., Stehouwer, C. D. A., & Schalkwijk, C. G. (2014). Methylglyoxal and glyoxalase I in atherosclerosis. Biochemical Society Transactions, 42, 443-449.
    • Di Angelantonio, E., Gao, P., Khan, H., Butterworth, A. S., Wormser, D., Kaptoge, S., Seshasai, S. R. K., Thompson, A., Sarwar, N., Willeit, P., Ridker, P. M., Barr, E. L. M., Khaw, K-T., Psaty, B. M., Brenner, H., Balkau, B., Dekker, J. M., Lawlor, D. A., Daimon, M., ... Danesh, J. (2014). Glycated Hemoglobin Measurement and Prediction of Cardiovascular Disease. JAMA-Journal of the American Medical Association, 311(12), 1225-1233.
    • Pennells, L., Kaptoge, S., White, I. R., Thompson, S. G., Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration, Stehouwer, C., & Wood, A. M. (2014). Assessing Risk Prediction Models Using Individual Participant Data From Multiple Studies. American Journal of Epidemiology, 179(5), 621-632.
    • Spauwen, P. J. J., & Stehouwer, C. D. A. (2014). Cognitive decline in type 2 diabetes. The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, 2(3), 188-189.
    • Fowkes, F. G. R., Murray, G. D., Butcher, I., Folsom, A. R., Hirsch, A. T., Couper, D. J., DeBacker, G., Kornitzer, M., Newman, A. B., Sutton-Tyrrell, K. C., Cushman, M., Lee, A. J., Price, J. F., D'Agostino Sr, R. B., Murabito, J. M., Norman, P. E., Masaki, K. H., Bouter, L. M., Heine, R. J., ... Ankle Brachial Index Collaboration, T. (2014). Development and validation of an ankle brachial index risk model for the prediction of cardiovascular events. European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, 21(3), 310-320.
    • Beijers, H. J. B. H., Ferreira, I., Bravenboer, B., Henry, R. M. A., Schalkwijk, C. G., Dekker, J. M., Nijpels, G., & Stehouwer, C. D. A. (2014). Higher central fat mass and lower peripheral lean mass are independent determinants of endothelial dysfunction in the elderly: The Hoorn study. Atherosclerosis, 233(1), 310-318.
    • Karaca, U., Schram, M. T., Houben, A. J. H. M., Muris, D. M. J., & Stehouwer, C. D. A. (2014). Microvascular dysfunction as a link between obesity, insulin resistance and hypertension. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 103(3), 382-387.
    • Muller, M., Smulders, Y. M., de Leeuw, P. W., & Stehouwer, C. D. A. (2014). Treatment of Hypertension in the Oldest Old A Critical Role for Frailty?Hypertension, 63(3), 433-441.
    • Montero, D., Walther, G., Stehouwer, C. D. A., Houben, A. J. H. M., Beckman, J. A., & Vinet, A. (2014). Effect of antioxidant vitamin supplementation on endothelial function in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Obesity Reviews, 15(2), 107-116.
    • Pilz, S., Teerlink, T., Scheffer, P. G., Meinitzer, A., Rutters, F., Tomaschitz, A., Drechsler, C., Kienreich, K., Nijpels, G., Stehouwer, C. D. A., Maerz, W., & Dekker, J. M. (2014). Homoarginine and mortality in an older population: the Hoorn study. European Journal of Clinical Investigation, 44(2), 200-208.
    • Heringa, S. M., van den Berg, E., Reijmer, Y. D., Nijpels, G., Stehouwer, C. D. A., Schalkwijk, C. G., Teerlink, T., Scheffer, P. G., van den Hurk, K., Kappelle, L. J., Dekker, J. M., & Biessels, G. J. (2014). Markers of low-grade inflammation and endothelial dysfunction are related to reduced information processing speed and executive functioning in an older population - the Hoorn Study. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 40, 108-118.
    • Simons, C. C. J. M., van den Brandt, P. A., Stehouwer, C. D. A., van Engeland, M., & Weijenberg, M. P. (2014). Body Size, Physical Activity, Early-Life Energy Restriction, and Associations with Methylated Insulin-like Growth Factor-Binding Protein Genes in Colorectal Cancer. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention, 23(9), 1852-1862.
    • Hertle, E., van Greevenbroek, M. M. J., Arts, I. C. W., van der Kallen, C. J. H., Feskens, E. J. M., Schalkwijk, C. G., & Stehouwer, C. D. A. (2014). Complement activation products C5a and sC5b-9 are associated with low-grade inflammation and endothelial dysfunction, but not with atherosclerosis in a cross-sectional analysis: The CODAM study. International Journal of Cardiology, 174(2), 400-403.
    • van Greevenbroek, M. M. J., Arts, I. C. W., van der Kallen, C. J. H., Dagnelie, P. C., Ferreira, I., Jansen, E., Schalkwijk, C. G., Feskens, E. J. M., & Stehouwer, C. D. A. (2014). Complement C3 Is Inversely Associated with Habitual Intake of Provitamin A but Not with Dietary Fat, Fatty Acids, or Vitamin E in Middle-Aged to Older White Adults and Positively Associated with Intake of Retinol in Middle-Aged to Older White Women. Journal of Nutrition, 144(1), 61-67.
    • Timmermans, S. H., Mommers, M., Gubbels, J. S., Kremers, S. P. J., Stafleu, A., Stehouwer, C. D. A., Prins, M. H., Penders, J., & Thijs, C. (2014). Maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood overweight and fat distribution: the KOALA Birth Cohort Study. Pediatric Obesity, 9(1), e14-e25.
    • van der Berg, J. D., Bosma, H., Caserotti, P., Eiriksdottir, G., Arnardottir, N. Y., Martin, K. R., Brychta, R. J., Chen, K. Y., Sveinsson, T., Johannsson, E., Launer, L. J., Gudnason, V., Jonsson, P. V., Stehouwer, C. D. A., Harris, T. B., & Koster, A. (2014). Midlife Determinants Associated with Sedentary Behavior in Old Age. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 46(7), 1359-1365.
    • Gaens, K. H., Goossens, G. H., Niessen, P. M., van Greevenbroek, M. M., van der Kallen, C. J., Niessen, H. W., Rensen, S. S., Buurman, W. A., Greve, J. W., Blaak, E. E., van Zandvoort, M. A., Bierhaus, A., Stehouwer, C. D., & Schalkwijk, C. G. (2014). Nε-(Carboxymethyl)lysine-Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Product Axis Is a Key Modulator of Obesity-Induced Dysregulation of Adipokine Expression and Insulin Resistance. Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology, 34(6), 1199-1208.
    • van de Laar, R. J., Stehouwer, C. D., Prins, M. H., van Mechelen, W., Twisk, J. W., & Ferreira, I. (2014). Self-reported time spent watching television is associated with arterial stiffness in young adults: the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 48(3), 256-264.
    • Brouwers, O., Niessen, P. M. G., Miyata, T., Ostergaard, J. A., Flyvbjerg, A., Peutz-Kootstra, C. J., Sieber, J., Mundel, P. H., Brownlee, M., Janssen, B. J. A., De Mey, J. G. R., Stehouwer, C. D. A., & Schalkwijk, C. G. (2014). Glyoxalase-1 overexpression reduces endothelial dysfunction and attenuates early renal impairment in a rat model of diabetes. Diabetologia, 57(1), 224-235.
    • Soulimane, S., Simon, D., Herman, W. H., Lange, C., Lee, C. M. Y., Colagiuri, S., Shaw, J. E., Zimmet, P. Z., Magliano, D., Ferreira, S. R. G., Dong, Y., Zhang, L., Jorgensen, T., Tuomilehto, J., Mohan, V., Christensen, D. L., Kaduka, L., Dekker, J. M., Nijpels, G., ... Balkau, B. (2014). HbA(1c), fasting and 2 h plasma glucose in current, ex- and never-smokers: a meta-analysis. Diabetologia, 57(1), 30-39.
    • de Jager, J., Kooy, A., Schalkwijk, C., van der Kolk, J., Lehert, P., Bets, D., Wulffele, M. G., Donker, A. J., & Stehouwer, C. D. A. (2014). Long-term effects of metformin on endothelial function in type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Internal Medicine, 275(1), 59-70.
    • Walraven, I., Van den Hurk, K., Van't Riet, E., Kamp, O., Schalkwijk, C. G., Stehouwer, C. D. A., Paulus, W. J., Moll, A. C., Dekker, J. M., Polak, B. C. P., & Nijpels, G. (2014). Low-grade inflammation and endothelial dysfunction explain the association between retinopathy and left ventricular ejection fraction in men: an 8-year follow-up of the Hoorn Study. Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications, 28(6), 819-823.