Coen Stehouwer

Professor

Prof. Coen Stehouwer (born Rotterdam, 1960) obtained an MD at the Erasmus University in Rotterdam (1985; cum laude). He was registered as internist in 1990 and obtained a PhD in 1992 (Vrije Universiteit Medical Centre, Amsterdam). He received postgraduate training in epidemiology and molecular biology. He was appointed professor of medicine and vice-chair of the Department of Medicine in 2000 at the Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam). In 2004, he accepted a position as professor of medicine and chair of the Department of Medicine at the University of Maastricht. Coen Stehouwer currently is Professor of Internal Medicine and Chair of the Department of Internal Medicine at Maastricht University in the Netherlands.

He is an internationally recognised clinician-scientist in the field of microcirculatory as well as large artery research, notably in the context of cardiovascular complications of diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Since 1990, the work of Professor Stehouwer and his group has led to 77 completed PhD theses, and more than 800 peer-reviewed papers in international journals.

His work is well-recognised, as shown by a Hirsh index of 109 (Web of Science); >52,000 citations; several awards, such as the Dr F. Gerritzen Award for excellent diabetes research (Dutch Diabetes Research Foundation, 1993); the Castelli-Pedroli Award for excellent research into the complications of diabetes (European Association for the Study of Diabetes, 2005); the Dutch Society of Vascular Medicine Career Award (2007); the Ruitenga Van Swieten honorary professorship of the University of Amsterdam (2009); and the Donald McDonald Award of Artery Society (2017); as well as many invited lectures at (inter)national meetings, such as those of the European Society for Microcirculation, the World Congress for Microcirculation, the European Society for the Study of Diabetes, the American Diabetes Association, the European Society for Cardiology, and the American Heart Association.

His research programme focuses on the elucidation of how metabolic changes in (pre)diabetes and the metabolic syndrome cause micro- and macrovascular disease. A key element of the programme is to combine epidemiology, clinical physiology and experimental approaches, in the conviction that these approaches should complement and mutually inspire each other. He is one of the principal investigators of the well-known Hoorn Study (since 1992). He also obtained national and European funding (16 M€) for, and is the initiator and Scientific Director of the Maastricht Study (started 2010), which combines very detailed phenotyping (with a focus on microcirculatory, large artery and cardiac function and structure) with an ‘omics’ approach in 7000 individuals without and 2000 with type 2 diabetes to elucidate how diabetes leads not only to classic complications but also to so-called emerging complications such as cognitive dysfunction, mood disorders, liver disease, musculoskeletal disease, pulmonary disease, sleep-disordered breathing, and infectious diseases.

Department of Internal Medicine
P. Debyelaan 25, 6229 HX Maastricht
PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht
T:+31(0)43 387 70 06

  • 2013
    • van Woudenbergh, G. J., Theofylaktopoulou, D., Kuijsten, A., Ferreira, I., van Greevenbroek, M. M., van der Kallen, C. J., Schalkwijk, C. G., Stehouwer, C. D., Ocke, M. C., Nijpels, G., Dekker, J. M., Blaak, E. E., & Feskens, E. J. (2013). Adapted dietary inflammatory index and its association with a summary score for low-grade inflammation and markers of glucose metabolism: the Cohort study on Diabetes and Atherosclerosis Maastricht (CODAM) and the Hoorn study.American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 98(6), 1533-1542. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.112.056333
    • Reinders, I., van Ballegooijen, A. J., Visser, M., Elshorbagy, A. K., Refsum, H., Henry, R. M. A., Dekker, J. M., Nijpels, G., Stehouwer, C. D. A., & Brouwer, I. A. (2013). Associations of serum n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids with echocardiographic measures among older adults: the Hoorn Study. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 67(12), 1277-1283. https://doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2013.167
    • Song, X., Jousilahti, P., Stehouwer, C. D. A., Soderberg, S., Onat, A., Laatikainen, T., Yudkin, J. S., Dankner, R., Morris, R., Tuomilehto, J., & Qiao, Q. (2013). Comparison of various surrogate obesity indicators as predictors of cardiovascular mortality in four European populations. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 67(12), 1298-1302. https://doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2013.203
    • Elshorbagy, A. K., Nijpels, G., Valdivia-Garcia, M., Stehouwer, C. D. A., Ocke, M., Refsum, H., & Dekker, J. M. (2013). S-Adenosylmethionine Is Associated with Fat Mass and Truncal Adiposity in Older Adults. Journal of Nutrition, 143(12), 1982-1988. https://doi.org/10.3945/jn.113.179192
    • Sipkens, J. A., Hahn, N., van den Brand, C. S., Meischl, C., Cillessen, S. A. G. M., Smith, D. E. C., Juffermans, L. J. M., Musters, R. J. P., Roos, D., Jakobs, C., Blom, H. J., Smulders, Y. M., Krijnen, P. A. J., Stehouwer, C. D. A., Rauwerda, J. A., van Hinsbergh, V. W. M., & Niessen, H. W. M. (2013). Homocysteine-Induced Apoptosis in Endothelial Cells Coincides With Nuclear NOX2 and Peri-nuclear NOX4 Activity. Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics, 67(2), 341-352. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12013-011-9297-y
    • van der Heijden, A. A. W. A., van't Riet, E., Bot, S. D. M., Cannegieter, S. C., Stehouwer, C. D. A., Baan, C. A., Dekker, J. M., & Nijpels, G. (2013). Risk of a Recurrent Cardiovascular Event in Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes or Intermediate Hyperglycemia The Hoorn Study. Diabetes Care, 36(11), 3498-3502. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc12-2691
    • Gronenschild, E. H. B. M., Muris, D. M. J., Schram, M. T., Karaca, U., Stehouwer, C. D. A., & Houben, A. J. H. M. (2013). Semi-automatic assessment of skin capillary density: Proof of principle and validation. Microvascular Research, 90, 192-198. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mvr.2013.08.003
    • Touwslager, R. N., Gielen, M., Tan, F. E. S., Mulder, A. L., Gerver, W. J., Zimmermann, L. J., Houben, A. J. H. M., Zeegers, M. P., Derom, C., Vlietinck, R., Maes, H. H., Stehouwer, C. D. A., & Thomis, M. (2013). Genetic, Maternal and Placental Factors in the Association between Birth Weight and Physical Fitness: A Longitudinal Twin Study. PLOS ONE, 8(10), [76423]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076423
    • van Eupen, M. G. A., Schram, M. T., Colhoun, H. M., Scheijen, J. L. J. M., Stehouwer, C. D. A., & Schalkwijk, C. G. (2013). Plasma levels of advanced glycation endproducts are associated with type 1 diabetes and coronary artery calcification. Cardiovascular Diabetology, 12, [149]. https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2840-12-149
    • Wlazlo, N., van Greevenbroek, M. M., Curvers, J., Schoon, E. J., Friederich, P., Twisk, J. W. R., Bravenboer, B., & Stehouwer, C. D. A. (2013). Diabetes mellitus at the time of diagnosis of cirrhosis is associated with higher incidence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, but not with increased mortality. Clinical Science, 125(7-8), 341-348. https://doi.org/10.1042/CS20120596
    • Vinknes, K. J., Dekker, J. M., Drevon, C. A., Refsum, H., Nurk, E., Nijpels, G., Stehouwer, C. D. A., Teerlink, T., Tell, G. S., Nygard, O., Vollset, S. E., Ueland, P. M., & Elshorbagy, A. K. (2013). Plasma sulfur amino acids and stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity in two caucasian populations. Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, 89(5), 297-303. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plefa.2013.09.007
    • Engelen, L., Stehouwer, C. D. A., & Schalkwijk, C. G. (2013). Current therapeutic interventions in the glycation pathway: evidence from clinical studies. Diabetes Obesity & Metabolism, 15(8), 677-689. https://doi.org/10.1111/dom.12058
    • Brouwers, O., de Vos-Houben, J. M., Niessen, P. M., Miyata, T., van Nieuwenhoven, F., Janssen, B. J., Hageman, G., Stehouwer, C. D., & Schalkwijk, C. G. (2013). Mild oxidative damage in the diabetic rat heart is attenuated by glyoxalase-1 overexpression. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 14(8), 15724-15739. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms140815724
    • Hanssen, N. M. J., Engelen, L., Ferreira, I., Scheijen, J. L. J. M., Huijberts, M. S., van Greevenbroek, M. M. J., van der Kallen, C. J. H., Dekker, J. M., Nijpels, G., Stehouwer, C. D. A., & Schalkwijk, C. G. (2013). Plasma Levels of Advanced Glycation Endproducts N-is an element of-(carboxymethyl)lysine, N-is an element of-(carboxyethyl)lysine, and Pentosidine Are not Independently Associated With Cardiovascular Disease in Individuals With or Without Type 2 Diabetes: The Hoorn and CODAM Studies. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 98(8), E1369-E1373. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2013-1068
    • Reference Values for Arterial Measurements Collaboration, Schalkwijk, C., van Greevenbroek, M., van der Kallen, C., van de Laar, R., Staessen, J., Vermeer, C., Braam, L., & Knapen, M. H. J. (2013). Reference intervals for common carotid intima-media thickness measured with echotracking: relation with risk factors. European Heart Journal, 34(30), 2368-U30. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehs380
    • van Eupen, M. G. A., Schram, M. T., Colhoun, H. M., Hanssen, N. M. J., Niessen, H. W. M., Tarnow, L., Parving, H. H., Rossing, P., Stehouwer, C. D. A., & Schalkwijk, C. G. (2013). The methylglyoxal-derived AGE tetrahydropyrimidine is increased in plasma of individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus and in atherosclerotic lesions and is associated with sVCAM-1. Diabetologia, 56(8), 1845-1855. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00125-013-2919-8
    • van Bussel, B. C. T., Soedamah Muthu, S. S., Henry, R. M., Schalkwijk, C. G., Ferreira, I., Chaturvedi, N., Toeller, M., Fuller, J. H., & Stehouwer, C. D. A. (2013). Unhealthy dietary patterns associated with inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in type 1 diabetes: The EURODIAB study. Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, 23(8), 758-764. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2012.04.005
    • Global Burden of Metabolic Risk Factors of Chronic Diseases Collaborating Group, en andere group authors, & Stehouwer, C. (2013). The Age-Specific Quantitative Effects of Metabolic Risk Factors on Cardiovascular Diseases and Diabetes: A Pooled Analysis. PLOS ONE, 8(7), [e65174]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065174
    • Wlazlo, N., van Greevenbroek, M. M. J., Ferreira, I., Jansen, E. H. J. M., Feskens, E. J. M., van der Kallen, C. J. H., Schalkwijk, C. G., Bravenboer, B., & Stehouwer, C. D. A. (2013). Activated complement factor 3 is associated with liver fat and liver enzymes: the CODAM study. European Journal of Clinical Investigation, 43(7), 679-688. https://doi.org/10.1111/eci.12093
    • den Ruijter, H. M., Peters, S. A. E., Groenewegen, K. A., Anderson, T. J., Britton, A. R., Dekker, J. M., Engstrom, G., Eijkemans, M. J., Evans, G. W., de Graaf, J., Grobbee, D. E., Hedblad, B., Hofman, A., Holewijn, S., Ikeda, A., Kavousi, M., Kitagawa, K., Kitamura, A., Koffijberg, H., ... Bots, M. L. (2013). Common carotid intima-media thickness does not add to Framingham risk score in individuals with diabetes mellitus: the USE-IMT initiative. Diabetologia, 56(7), 1494-1502. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00125-013-2898-9
    • Spauwen, P. J. J., Kohler, S., Verhey, F. R. J., Stehouwer, C. D. A., & van Boxtel, M. P. J. (2013). Effects of Type 2 Diabetes on 12-Year Cognitive Change. Diabetes Care, 36(6), 1554-1561. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc12-0746
    • Nielsen, S. E., Schjoedt, K. J., Rossing, K., Persson, F., Schalkwijk, C. G., Stehouwer, C. D. A., Parving, H. H., & Rossing, P. (2013). Levels of NT-proBNP, markers of low-grade inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction during spironolactone treatment in patients with diabetic kidney disease.Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System, 14(2), 161-166. https://doi.org/10.1177/1470320312460290
    • van der Zwan, L. P., Davids, M., Scheffer, P. G., Dekker, J. M., Stehouwer, C. D. A., & Teerlink, T. (2013). L-Homoarginine and L-arginine are antagonistically related to blood pressure in an elderly population: the Hoorn study. Journal of Hypertension, 31(6), 1114-1123. https://doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0b013e32836037fb
    • Walraven, I., van 't Riet, E., Stehouwer, C. D. A., Polak, B. C. P., Moll, A. C., Dekker, J. M., & Nijpels, G. (2013). Fasting proinsulin levels are significantly associated with 20 year cancer mortality rates. The Hoorn Study. Diabetologia, 56(5), 1148-1154. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00125-013-2864-6
    • van Greevenbroek, M. M. J., Schalkwijk, C. G., & Stehouwer, C. D. A. (2013). Obesity-associated low-grade inflammation in type 2 diabetes mellitus: causes and consequences. Netherlands Journal of Medicine, 71(4), 174-187.
    • van Ballegooijen, A. J., Reinders, I., Visser, M., Dekker, J. M., Nijpels, G., Stehouwer, C. D. A., Pilz, S., & Brouwer, I. A. (2013). Serum Parathyroid Hormone in Relation to All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality: The Hoorn Study. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 98(4), E638-E645. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2012-4007
    • van Bussel, B. C. T., Ferreira, I., van de Waarenburg, M. P., van Greevenbroek, M. M. J., van der Kallen, C. J. H., Henry, R. M., Feskens, E. J., Stehouwer, C. D. A., & Schalkwijk, C. G. (2013). Multiple inflammatory biomarker detection in a prospective cohort study: a cross-validation between well-established single-biomarker techniques and an electrochemiluminescense-based multi-array platform.PLOS ONE, 8(3), [58576]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0058576
    • van Aerde, M. A., Soedanah Muthu, S. S., Geleijnse, J. M., Snijder, M. B., Nijpels, G., Stehouwer, C. D. A., & Dekker, J. M. (2013). Dairy intake in relation to cardiovascular disease mortality and all-cause mortality: the Hoorn Study.European Journal of Nutrition, 52(2), 609-616. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-012-0363-z
    • Eringa, E. C., Serne, E. H., Meijer, R. I., Schalkwijk, C. G., Houben, A. J. H. M., Stehouwer, C. D. A., Smulders, Y. M., & van Hinsbergh, V. W. M. (2013). Endothelial dysfunction in (pre)diabetes: Characteristics, causative mechanisms and pathogenic role in type 2 diabetes. Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders, 14(1), 39-48. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11154-013-9239-7
    • Muris, D. M. J., Houben, A. J., Schram, M. T., & Stehouwer, C. D. A. (2013). Microvascular dysfunction: An emerging pathway in the pathogenesis of obesity-related insulin resistance.Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders, 14(1), 29-38. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11154-012-9231-7
    • Koekkoek, P. S., Rutten, G. E., Ruis, C., Reijmer, Y. D., van den Berg, E., Gorter, KJ., Stehouwer, C. D. A., Dekker, J. M., Nijpels, G., Kappelle, L. J., & Biessels, G. J. (2013). Mild depressive symptoms do not influence cognitive functioning in patients with type 2 diabetes.Psychoneuroendocrinology, 38(3), 376-386. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2012.06.014
    • Esser, D., Oosterink, E., 't Roodt, J. O., Henry, R. M. A., Stehouwer, C. D. A., Muller, M., & Afman, L. A. (2013). Vascular and Inflammatory High Fat Meal Responses in Young Healthy Men; A Discriminative Role of IL-8 Observed in a Randomized Trial. PLOS ONE, 8(2), [e53474]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053474
    • van de Laar, R. J. J., Stehouwer, C. D. A., van Bussel, B. C. T., Prins, M. H., Twisk, J. W., & Ferreira, I. (2013). Adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern in early life is associated with lower arterial stiffness in adulthood: the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study.Journal of Internal Medicine, 273(1), 79-93. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2796.2012.02577.x
    • Gaens, K. H., Stehouwer, C. D. A., & Schalkwijk, C. G. (2013). Advanced glycation endproducts and its receptor for advanced glycation endproducts in obesity. Current Opinion in Lipidology, 24(1), 4-11. https://doi.org/10.1097/MOL.0b013e32835aea13
    • Geelen, C. C., van Greevenbroek, M. M., van Rossum, E. F., Schaper, N. C., Nijpels, G., 't Hart, L. M., Schalkwijk, C. G., Ferreira, I., van der Kallen, C. J., Sauerwein, H. P., Dekker, J. M., Stehouwer, C. D., & Havekes, B. (2013). BclI Glucocorticoid Receptor Polymorphism Is Associated With Greater Body Fatness: The Hoorn and CODAM Studies. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 98(3), E595-E599. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2012-3442
    • van Dijk, J. W. M., Venema, M., Mechelen, W. V., Stehouwer, C. D. A., Hartgens, F., & van Loon, L. J. C. (2013). Effect of Moderate-Intensity Exercise Versus Activities of Daily Living on 24-hour Blood Glucose Homeostasis in Male patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 36(11), 3448-3453. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc12-2620
    • van Dijk, J. W. M., Manders, R. J., Canfora, E. E., Mechelen, W. V., Hartgens, F., Stehouwer, C. D., & van Loon, L. J. C. (2013). Exercise and 24-h Glycemic Control: Equal Effects for All Type 2 Diabetes Patients?Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 45(4), 628-635. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e31827ad8b4
    • Touwslager, R. N., Gielen, M., Mulder, A. L. M., Gerver, W. J. M., Zimmermann, L. J., Dagnelie, P. C., Houben, A. J. H. M., Stehouwer, C. D. A., Derom, C., Vlietinck, R., Loos, R. J. F., & Zeegers, M. P. (2013). Genetic and environmental factors in associations between infant growth and adult cardiometabolic risk profile in twins. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 98(4), 994-1001. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.112.039131
    • Wlazlo, N., van Greevenbroek, M. M. J., Ferreira, I., Jansen, E. H., Feskens, E. J., van der Kallen, C. J. H., Schalkwijk, C. G., Bravenboer, B., & Stehouwer, C. D. A. (2013). Iron Metabolism Is Associated With Adipocyte Insulin Resistance and Plasma Adiponectin: The Cohort on Diabetes and Atherosclerosis Maastricht (CODAM) study.Diabetes Care, 36(2), 309-315. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc12-0505
  • 2012
    • van Sijl, A. M., van den Hurk, K., Peters, M. J. L., Van Halm, V. P., Nijpels, G., Stehouwer, C. D. A., Smulders, Y. M., Voskuyl, A. E., Dekker, J. M., & Nurmohamed, M. T. (2012). Different Type of Carotid Arterial Wall Remodeling in Rheumatoid Arthritis Compared with Healthy Subjects: A Case-Control Study. Journal of Rheumatology, 39(12), 2261-2266. https://doi.org/10.3899/jrheum.120617
    • Wlazlo, N., van Greevenbroek, M. M. J., Ferreira, I., Jansen, E. H. J. M., Feskens, E. J. M., van der Kallen, C. J. H., Schalkwijk, C. G., Bravenboer, B., & Stehouwer, C. D. A. (2012). Low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance independently explain substantial parts of the association between body fat and serum C3: The CODAM study. Metabolism-Clinical and Experimental, 61(12), 1787-1796. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.metabol.2012.05.015
    • Muris, D. M. J., Houben, A. J. H. M., Schram, M. T., & Stehouwer, C. D. A. (2012). Microvascular Dysfunction Is Associated With a Higher Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology, 32(12), 3082-3094. https://doi.org/10.1161/ATVBAHA.112.300291
    • Kroon, M. H., Diamant, M., Van Den Hurk, K., Boomsma, F., Alssema, M., Nijpels, G., Kamp, O., Paulus, W. J., Stehouwer, C. D. A., Dekker, J. M., & Henry, R. M. A. (2012). Prospective Associations of B-Type Natriuretic Peptide With Markers of Left Ventricular Function in Individuals With and Without Type 2 Diabetes An 8-year follow-up of the Hoorn Study. Diabetes Care, 35(12), 2510-2514. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc11-1959
    • van Greevenbroek, M. M. J., Ghosh, S., van der Kallen, C. J. H., Brouwers, M. C. G. J., Schalkwijk, C. G., & Stehouwer, C. D. A. (2012). Up-Regulation of the Complement System in Subcutaneous Adipocytes from Nonobese, Hypertriglyceridemic Subjects Is Associated with Adipocyte Insulin Resistance. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 97(12), 4742-4752. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2012-2539
    • Van't Riet, E., Schram, M. T., Abbink, E. J., Admiraal, W. M., Dijk-Schaap, M. W., Holleman, F., Nijpels, G., Ozcan, B., Pijl, H., Schaper, N. C., Sijbrands, E. J. G., Silvius, B., Tack, C. J., de Valk, H. W., Wolffenbuttel, B. H. R., Stehouwer, C. D. A., & Dekker, J. M. (2012). The Diabetes Pearl: Diabetes biobanking in The Netherlands. BMC Public Health, 12, 949. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-12-949
    • Kaptoge, S., Di Angelantonio, E., Pennells, L., Wood, A. M., White, I. R., Gao, P., Walker, M., Thompson, A., Sarwar, N., Caslake, M., Butterworth, A. S., Amouyel, P., Assmann, G., Bakker, S. J. L., Barr, E. L. M., Barrett-Connor, E., Benjamin, E. J., Bjorkelund, C., Brenner, H., ... Danesh, J. (2012). C-Reactive Protein, Fibrinogen, and Cardiovascular Disease Prediction. New England Journal of Medicine, 367(14), 1310-1320. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1107477
    • Wormser, D., Di Angelantonio, E., Kaptoge, S., Wood, A. M., Gao, P., Sun, Q., Walldius, G., Selmer, R., Verschuren, W. M. M., Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B., Engstrom, G., Ridker, P. M., Njolstad, I., Iso, H., Holme, I., Giampaoli, S., Tunstall-Pedoe, H., Gaziano, J. M., Brunner, E. J., ... Danesh, J. (2012). Adult height and the risk of cause-specific death and vascular morbidity in 1 million people: individual participant meta-analysis. International Journal of Epidemiology, 41(5), 1419-1433. https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dys086
    • Veringa, S. J. E., Nanayakkara, P. W. B., van Ittersum, F. J., Vegting, I. L., van Guldener, C., Smulders, Y. M., ter Wee, P. M., & Stehouwer, C. D. A. (2012). Effect of a treatment strategy consisting of pravastatin, vitamin E, and homocysteine lowering on arterial compliance and distensibility in patients with mild-to-moderate chronic kidney disease. Clinical Nephrology, 78(4), 263-272. https://doi.org/10.5414/CN107439
    • Pilz, S., van den Hurk, K., Nijpels, G., Stehouwer, C. D. A., van't Riet, E., Kienreich, K., Tomaschitz, A., & Dekker, J. M. (2012). Vitamin D status, incident diabetes and prospective changes in glucose metabolism in older subjects: The Hoorn study. Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, 22(10), 883-889. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2012.03.008