Martijn Brouwers

Assistant Professor

Dr Martijn Brouwers obtained his MD degree (with honours) in 2002, after which he started his PhD project that focussed on hepatic steatosis in familial combined hyperlipidemia. In 2006, he worked as a trainee at the Department of Internal Medicine and Endocrinology. Since 2012. he has been a staff member (internist-endocrinologist) at Maastricht UMC+.

His research focusses on the cardiometabolic consequences of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD consists of a histological spectrum comprising simple steatosis, steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis and cirrhosis. Evidence is accumulating that NAFLD is not only a liver disease per se, it is also a risk factor for type 2 diabetes, chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease. This research line aims to elucidate the exact mechanistic link between NAFLD and these systemic diseases. For this, a diverse set of studies is used, ranging from (genetic) epidemiology, to ‘human knockout’ models, to randomised controlled trials and experimental animal work. This research is in part funded by the Dutch Heart Foundation, the Dutch Diabetes Foundation and the European Foundation for the Study of Diabetes.

Department ofInternal Medicine
P. Debeyelaan 25, 6229 HX Maastricht 
PO Box 5800, 6202 AZ Maastricht
T: +31(0)43 388 70 19

  • 2020
    • Hertroijs, D. F. L., Elissen, A. M. J., Brouwers, M. C. G. J., Hiligsmann, M., Schaper, N. C., & Ruwaard, D. (2020). Preferences of people with Type 2 diabetes for diabetes care: a discrete choice experiment. Diabetic Medicine, 37(11), 1807-1815. https://doi.org/10.1111/dme.13969
    • Buziau, A. M., Scheijen, J. L. J. M., Stehouwer, C. D. A., Simons, N., Brouwers, M. C. G. J., & Schalkwijk, C. G. (2020). Development and validation of a UPLC-MS/MS method to quantify fructose in serum and urine. Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences, 1155, [122299]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jchromb.2020.122299
    • Simons, N., Debray, F-G., Schaper, N. C., Feskens, E. J. M., Hollak, C. E. M., Bons, J. A. P., Bierau, J., Houben, A. J. H. M., Schalkwijk, C. G., Stehouwer, C. D. A., Cassiman, D., & Brouwers, M. C. G. J. (2020). Kidney and vascular function in adult patients with hereditary fructose intolerance. Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports, 23, [100600]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgmr.2020.100600
    • Foreman, Y. D., Brouwers, M. C. G. J., van der Kallen, C. J. H., Pagen, D. M. E., van Greevenbroek, M. M. J., Henry, R. M. A., Koster, A., Wesselius, A., Schaper, N. C., & Stehouwer, C. D. A. (2020). Glucose Variability Assessed with Continuous Glucose Monitoring: Reliability, Reference Values, and Correlations with Established Glycemic Indices-The Maastricht Study. Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics, 22(5), 395-403. https://doi.org/10.1089/dia.2019.0385
    • Buziau, A. M., Schalkwijk, C. G., Stehouwer, C. D. A., Tolan, D. R., & Brouwers, M. C. G. J. (2020). Recent advances in the pathogenesis of hereditary fructose intolerance: implications for its treatment and the understanding of fructose-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, 77(9), 1709-1719. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00018-019-03348-2
    • Simons, N., Bijnen, M., Wouters, K. A. M., Rensen, S. S., Beulens, J. W. J., van Greevenbroek, M. M. J., 't Hart, L. M., Greve, J. W. M., van der Kallen, C. J. H., Schaper, N. C., Schalkwijk, C. G., Stehouwer, C. D. A., & Brouwers, M. C. G. J. (2020). The endothelial function biomarker soluble E-selectin is associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Liver International, 40(5), 1079-1088. https://doi.org/10.1111/liv.14384
    • Roumans, K. H. M., Lindeboom, L., Veeraiah, P., Remie, C. M. E., Phielix, E., Havekes, B., Bruls, Y. M. H., Brouwers, M. C. G. J., Ståhlman, M., Alssema, M., Peters, H. P. F., de Mutsert, R., Staels, B., Taskinen, M-R., Borén, J., Schrauwen, P., & Schrauwen-Hinderling, V. B. (2020). Hepatic saturated fatty acid fraction is associated with de novo lipogenesis and hepatic insulin resistance. Nature Communications, 11(1), [1891]. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-15684-0
    • Brouwers, M. C. G. J., Simons, N., Stehouwer, C. D. A., & Isaacs, A. (2020). Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and cardiovascular disease: assessing the evidence for causality. Diabetologia, 63(2), 253-260. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00125-019-05024-3
    • Brouwers, M. C. G. J., de Graaf, J., Simons, N., Meex, S., ten Doeschate, S., van Heertum, S., Heidemann, B., Luijten, J., de Boer, D., Schaper, N., Stehouwer, C. D. A., & van Greevenbroek, M. M. J. (2020). Incidence of type 2 diabetes in familial combined hyperlipidemia. BMJ Open Diabetes Research and Care, 8(1), [001107]. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjdrc-2019-001107
  • 2019
    • Foreman, Y. D., Brouwers, M. C. G. J., Berendschot, T. T. J. M., van Dongen, M. C. J. M., Eussen, S. J. P. M., van Greevenbroek, M. M. J., Henry, R. M. A., Houben, A. J. H. M., van der Kallen, C. J. H., Kroon, A. A., Reesink, K. D., Schram, M. T., Schaper, N. C., & Stehouwer, C. D. A. (2019). The oral glucose tolerance test-derived incremental glucose peak is associated with greater arterial stiffness and maladaptive arterial remodeling: The Maastricht Study. Cardiovascular Diabetology, 18(1), [152]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12933-019-0950-x
    • Simons, N., Debray, F-G., Schaper, N. C., Kooi, M. E., Feskens, E. J. M., Hollak, C. E. M., Lindeboom, L., Koek, G. H., Bons, J. A. P., Lefeber, D. J., Hodson, L., Schalkwijk, C. G., Stehouwer, C. D. A., Cassiman, D., & Brouwers, M. C. G. J. (2019). Patients With Aldolase B Deficiency Are Characterized by Increased Intrahepatic Triglyceride Content. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 104(11), 5053-5061. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2018-02795
    • Hertroijs, D. F. L., Brouwers, M. C. G. J., Elissen, A. M. J., Schaper, N. C., & Ruwaard, D. (2019). Relevant patient characteristics for estimating healthcare needs according to healthcare providers and people with type 2 diabetes: a Delphi survey. BMC Health Services Research, 19(1), [575]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-019-4371-z
    • Telgenkamp, I., Kusters, Y. H. A. M., Schalkwijk, C. G., Houben, A. J. H. M., Kooi, M. E., Lindeboom, L., Bons, J. A. P., Schaper, N. C., Joris, P. J., Plat, J., Mensink, R. P., Stehouwer, C. D. A., & Brouwers, M. C. G. J. (2019). Contribution of Liver Fat to Weight Loss-Induced Changes in Serum Hepatokines: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 104(7), 2719-2727. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2018-02378
    • Kuiper, A., Grunewald, S., Murphy, E., Coenen, M. A., Eggink, H., Zutt, R., Rubio-Gozalbo, M. E., Bosch, A. M., Williams, M., Derks, T. G. J., Lachmann, R. H. L., Brouwers, M. C. G. J., Janssen, M. C. H., Tijssen, M. A., & de Koning, T. J. (2019). Movement disorders and nonmotor neuropsychological symptoms in children and adults with classical galactosemia. Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease, 42(3), 451-458. https://doi.org/10.1002/jimd.12054
    • Brouwers, M. C. G. J., Simons, N., Stehouwer, C. D. A., Koek, G. H., Schaper, N. C., & Isaacs, A. (2019). Relationship Between Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Susceptibility Genes and Coronary Artery Disease. Hepatology communications, 3(4), 587-596. https://doi.org/10.1002/hep4.1319
    • Luijten, J., van Greevenbroek, M. M. J., Schaper, N. C., Meex, S. J. R., van der Steen, C., Meijer, L. J., de Boer, D., de Graaf, J., Stehouwer, C. D. A., & Brouwers, M. C. G. J. (2019). Incidence of cardiovascular disease in familial combined hyperlipidemia: A 15-year follow-up study. Atherosclerosis, 280, 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2018.11.013
  • 2018
    • Simons, P. I. H. G., Simons, N., Stehouwer, C. D. A., Schalkwijk, C. G., Schaper, N. C., & Brouwers, M. C. G. J. (2018). Association of common gene variants in glucokinase regulatory protein with cardiorenal disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLOS ONE, 13(10), [0206174]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0206174
    • Hodson, L., & Brouwers, M. C. G. J. (2018). Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease concerns with glucokinase activators. The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, 6(9), 684-685. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2213-8587(18)30196-7
    • Huijbregts, S. C. J., Bosch, A. M., Simons, Q. A., Jahja, R., Brouwers, M. C. G. J., De Sonneville, L. M. J., De Vries, M. C., Hofstede, F. C., Hollak, C. E. M., Janssen, M. C. H., Langendonk, J. G., Rubio-Gozalbo, M. E., Van der Meere, J. J., Van der Ploeg, A. T., & Van Spronsen, F. J. (2018). The impact of metabolic control and tetrahydrobiopterin treatment on health related quality of life of patients with early-treated phenylketonuria: A PKU-COBESO study. Molecular Genetics and Metabolism, 125(1-2), 96-103. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgme.2018.07.002
    • Hertroijs, D. F. L., Elissen, A. M. J., Brouwers, M. C. G. J., Schaper, N. C., & Ruwaard, D. (2018). Relevant patient characteristics for guiding tailored integrated diabetes primary care: a systematic review. Primary health care research & development, 19(5), 424-447. https://doi.org/10.1017/S146342361800004X
    • van Dalem, J., Brouwers, M. C. G. J., Stehouwer, C. D. A., Krings, A., Klungel, O. H., Driessen, J. H. M., de Vries, F., & Burden, A. M. (2018). Risk of a first-ever acute myocardial infarction and all-cause mortality with sulphonylurea treatment: A population-based cohort study. Diabetes Obesity & Metabolism, 20(4), 1056-1060. https://doi.org/10.1111/dom.13168
    • Hertroijs, D. FL., Elissen, A. MJ., Brouwers, M. CGJ., Schaper, N. C., Köhler, S., Popa, M. C., Asteriadis, S., Hendriks, S. H., Bilo, H. J., & Ruwaard, D. (2018). A risk score including body mass index, glycated haemoglobin and triglycerides predicts future glycaemic control in people with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, 20(3), 681-688. https://doi.org/10.1111/dom.13148
  • 2017
    • Riemersma, M., Hazebroek, M. R., Helderman-van den Enden, A. T. J. M., Salomons, G. S., Ferdinandusse, S., Brouwers, M. C. G. J., van der Ploeg, L., Heymans, S., Glatz, J. F. C., van den Wijngaard, A., Krapels, I. P. C., Bierau, J., & Brunner, H. G. (2017). Propionic acidemia as a cause of adult-onset dilated cardiomyopathy. European Journal of Human Genetics, 25(11), 1195-1201. https://doi.org/10.1038/ejhg.2017.127
    • Jahja, R., van Spronsen, F. J., de Sonneville, L. M. J., van der Meere, J. J., Bosch, A. M., Hollak, C. E. M., Rubio-Gozalbo, M. E., Brouwers, M. C. G. J., Hofstede, F. C., de Vries, M. C., Janssen, M. C. H., van der Ploeg, A. T., Langendonk, J. G., & Huijbregts, S. C. J. (2017). Long-Term Follow-Up of Cognition and Mental Health in Adult Phenylketonuria: A PKU-COBESO Study. Behavior Genetics, 47(5), 486-497. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10519-017-9863-1
    • Petrie, J. R., Chaturvedi, N., Ford, I., Brouwers, M. C. G. J., Greenlaw, N., Tillin, T., Hramiak, I., Hughes, A. D., Jenkins, A. J., Klein, B. E. K., Klein, R., Ooi, T. C., Rossing, P., Stehouwer, C. D. A., Sattar, N., Colhoun, H. M., & REMOVAL Study Grp (2017). Cardiovascular and metabolic effects of metformin in patients with type 1 diabetes (REMOVAL): a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, 5(8), 597-609. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2213-8587(17)30194-8
    • Jahja, R., van der Meere, J. J., Legemaat, A. M., Rubio-Gozalbo, M. E., Hofstede, F. C., van der Ploeg, A. T., Langendonk, J. G., Huijbregts, S. C. J., de Sonneville, L. M. J., Bosch, A. M., Hollak, C. E. M., Brouwers, M. C. G. J., de Vries, M. C., Janssen, M. C. H., & van Spronsen, F. J. (2017). Cognitive Profile and Mental Health in Adult Phenylketonuria: A PKU-COBESO Study. Neuropsychology, 31(4), 437-447. https://doi.org/10.1037/neu0000358
    • Simons, N., Isaacs, A., Koek, G. H., Kuc, S., Schaper, N. C., & Brouwers, M. C. G. J. (2017). PNPLA3, TM6SF2, and MBOAT7 Genotypes and Coronary Artery Disease. Gastroenterology, 152(4), 912-913. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2016.12.020
    • van den Nouland, D. P. A., Brouwers, M. C. G. J., & Stassen, P. M. (2017). Prognostic value of plasma lactate levels in a retrospective cohort presenting at a university hospital emergency department. BMJ Open, 7(1), [011450]. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2016-011450
  • 2016
    • Simons, N., Dekker, J. M., van Greevenbroek, M. M. J., Nijpels, G., 't Hart, L. M., van der Kallen, C. J. H., Schalkwijk, C. G., Schaper, N. C., Stehouwer, C. D. A., & Brouwers, M. C. G. J. (2016). A Common Gene Variant in Glucokinase Regulatory Protein Interacts With Glucose Metabolism on Diabetic Dyslipidemia: the Combined CODAM and Hoorn Studies. Diabetes Care, 39(10), 1811-1817. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc16-0153
    • van Dalem, J., Brouwers, M. C. G. J., Stehouwer, C. D. A., Krings, A., Leufkens, H. G. M., Driessen, J. H. M., de Vries, F., & Burden, A. M. (2016). Risk of hypoglycaemia in users of sulphonylureas compared with metformin in relation to renal function and sulphonylurea metabolite group: population based cohort study. BMJ (e), 354, [i3625]. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.i3625
    • Jahja, R., van Spronsen, F. J., de Sonneville, L. M. J., van der Meere, J. J., Bosch, A. M., Hollak, C. E. M., Rubio Gozalbo, E., Brouwers, M. C. G. J., Hofstede, F. C., de Vries, M. C., Janssen, M. C. H., van der Ploeg, A. T., Langendonk, J. G., & Huijbregts, S. C. J. (2016). Social-cognitive functioning and social skills in patients with early treated phenylketonuria: a PKU-COBESO study. Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease, 39(3), 355-362. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10545-016-9918-0
    • Hollak, C. E. M., Biegstraaten, M., Baumgartner, M. R., Belmatoug, N., Bembi, B., Bosch, A., Brouwers, M., Dekker, H., Dobbelaere, D., Engelen, M., Groenendijk, M. C., Lachmann, R., Langendonk, J. G., Langeveld, M., Linthorst, G., Morava, E., Poll-The, B. T., Rahman, S., Rubio Gozalbo, E., ... Hagendijk, R. (2016). Position statement on the role of healthcare professionals, patient organizations and industry in European Reference Networks. Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases, 11, [7]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13023-016-0383-5
    • van Dalem, J., Brouwers, M., Stehouwer, C., Krings, A., Leufkens, H. G. M., Driessen, J. H. M., de Vries, F., & Burden, A. (2016). Het risico op hypoglykemieën bij sulfonylureumderivaten ten opzichte van metformine in relatie tot nierfunctie en metabolietgroep. Nederlands Platform voor Farmaceutisch Onderzoek, 1, [a1636]. https://www.knmp.nl/professie/wetenschap/nederlands-platform-voor-farmaceutisch-onderzoek/het-risico-op-hypoglykemieen-bij-sulfonylureumderivaten-ten-opzichte-van-metformine-in-relatie-tot-nierfunctie-en-metabolietgroep
  • 2015
    • Brouwers, M. C. G. J. (2015). Electrolyte and Acid-Base Disturbances in Diabetes Mellitus. New England Journal of Medicine, 373(25), 2482-2482.
    • Liemburg, G. B., Jahja, R., van Spronsen, F. J., de Sonneville, L. M. J., van der Meere, J. J., Bosch, A. M., Hollak, C. E. M., Rubio-Gozalbo, M. E., Brouwers, M. C. G. J., Hofstede, F. C., de Vries, M. C., Janssen, M. C. H., van der Ploeg, A. T., Langendonk, J. G., & Huijbregts, S. C. J. (2015). Is BRIEF a useful instrument in day to day care of patients with phenylketonuria?Molecular Genetics and Metabolism, 114(3), 425-430. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgme.2014.12.302
    • Brouwers, M. C. G. J., Ham, J. C., Wisse, E., Misra, S., Cleuren - Landewe, S., Rosenthal, M., Patel, D., Oliver, N., Bilo, H. J. G., & Murphy, E. (2015). Elevated Lactate Levels in Patients With Poorly Regulated Type 1 Diabetes and Glycogenic Hepatopathy: A New Feature of Mauriac Syndrome. Diabetes Care, 38(2), E11-E12. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc14-2205
    • Brouwers, M. C. G. J., Jacobs, C., Bast, A., Stehouwer, C. D. A., & Schaper, N. C. (2015). Modulation of Glucokinase Regulatory Protein: A Double-Edged Sword?Trends in Molecular Medicine, 21(10), 583-594. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molmed.2015.08.004
  • 2014
    • van Greevenbroek, M. M. J., Stalenhoef, A. F. H., de Graaf, J., & Brouwers, M. C. G. J. (2014). Familial combined hyperlipidemia: from molecular insights to tailored therapy. Current Opinion in Lipidology, 25(3), 176-182. https://doi.org/10.1097/MOL.0000000000000068
    • Brouwers, M. C. G. J., van Greevenbroek, M. M. J., Konrad, R. J., Troutt, J. S., Schaper, N. C., & Stehouwer, C. D. A. (2014). Circulating PCSK9 is a strong determinant of plasma triacylglycerols and total cholesterol in homozygous carriers of apolipoprotein ε2. Clinical Science, 126(9), 679-684. https://doi.org/10.1042/CS20130556
  • 2013
    • Brouwers, M. C. G. J., Konrad, R. J., van Himbergen, T. M., Isaacs, A., Otokozawa, S., Troutt, J. S., Schaefer, E. J., van Greevenbroek, M. M. J., Stalenhoef, A. F. H., & de Graaf, J. (2013). Plasma proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 levels are related to markers of cholesterol synthesis in familial combined hyperlipidemia. Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, 23(11), 1115-1121. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2012.11.008
    • Jahja, R., Huijbregts, S. C. J., de Sonneville, L. M. J., van der Meere, J. J., Bosch, A. M., Hollak, C. E. M., Rubio-Gozalbo, M. E., Brouwers, M. C. G. J., Hofstede, F. C., de Vries, M. C., Janssen, M. C. H., van der Ploeg, A. T., Langendonk, J. G., & van Spronsen, F. J. (2013). Mental health and social functioning in early treated Phenylketonuria: The PKU-COBESO study. Molecular Genetics and Metabolism, 110, S57-S61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgme.2013.10.011
  • 2012
    • van Greevenbroek, M. M. J., Ghosh, S., van der Kallen, C. J. H., Brouwers, M. C. G. J., Schalkwijk, C. G., & Stehouwer, C. D. A. (2012). Up-Regulation of the Complement System in Subcutaneous Adipocytes from Nonobese, Hypertriglyceridemic Subjects Is Associated with Adipocyte Insulin Resistance. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 97(12), 4742-4752. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2012-2539
    • van Sloten, T. T., Pijpers, E., Stehouwer, C. D. A., & Brouwers, M. C. (2012). Metformin-associated lactic acidosis in a patient with normal kidney function.Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 96(3), E57-E58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2011.07.021
    • Brouwers, M. C. G. J., van Greevenbroek, M. M. J., Stehouwer, C. D. A., de Graaf, J., & Stalenhoef, A. F. H. (2012). The genetics of familial combined hyperlipidaemia. Nature Reviews Endocrinology, 8(6), 352-362. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrendo.2012.15
  • 2011
    • Brouwers, M. C., van Greevenbroek, M. M. J., Troutt, J., Bonner Freeman, A., Lu, A., Schaper, N. C., Konrad, R. J., & Stehouwer, C. D. A. (2011). Plasma proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 is a heritable trait of familial combined hyperlipidemia. Clinical Science, 121, 397-403. https://doi.org/10.1042/CS20110129
    • Brouwers, M. C., Troutt, J. S., van Greevenbroek, M. M. J., Ferreira, I., Feskens, E. J., van der Kallen, C. J. H., Schaper, N. C., Schalkwijk, C. G., Konrad, R. J., & Stehouwer, C. D. A. (2011). Plasma proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 is not altered in subjects with impaired glucose metabolism and type 2 diabetes mellitus, but its relationship with non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B may be modified by type 2 diabetes mellitus: The CODAM study. Atherosclerosis, 217(1), 263-267. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2011.03.023
  • 2010
  • 2009
    • Brouwers, M. C., Reesink, K. D., van Greevenbroek, M. M., Meinders, J. M., van der Kallen, C. J., Schaper, N., Hoeks, A. P., & Stehouwer, C. D. (2009). Increased arterial stiffness in familial combined hyperlipidemia. Journal of Hypertension, 27(5), 1009-16. https://doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0b013e32832991fa